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Timoclea

(73 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμόκλεια; Timókleia). Sister of the Theban general Theagenes [3]. During the Macedonian sacking of Thebes (in 335 BC) she was attacked in her house and raped, but was ultimately able to outwit and kill the perpetrator. Impressed by her courage, her dignity and her pride, Alexander [4] the Great refrained from convicting her (Plut. Alexandros 12; Plut. Mor. 259d-260d; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,40). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 751.

Telliads

(26 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τελλιάδαι; Telliádai). Family of seers in Elis (Hdt. 9,37). Hegesistratus [2] and Tellias are known by name (Hdt. 8,27,3-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Iphicrates

(278 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰφικράτης; Iphikrátēs). Son of Timotheus, an Athenian from Rhamnous, and an important general in the first half of the 4th cent. BC. In the Corinthian War, I. achieved prominence by creating a powerful corps of peltasts with which he operated in the Peloponnese between 393 and 390 and annihilated a Spartan   mora near Corinth (Xen. Hell. 4,5,11-18; Diod. Sic. 14,91,2; 15,44; Nep. Iphicrates 1). As commander he was victorious at the Hellespont against  Anaxibius in 389 BC (Xen. Hell. 4,8,34-39). Following the  Ki…

Pelopidas

(407 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πελοπίδας; Pelopídas). Distinguished Theban, son of Hippocles, after to Epaminondas the outstanding commander and politician of the Boeotian League during the Theban hegemony (Boeotia, Boeotians with map). In 382 BC, P. was a young man: his year of birth was therefore probably around 410. As a supporter of the democratic faction of Ismenias [1], he fled to Athens after the Spartan occupation of the Kadmeia (Thebes), from where he apparently organized the resistance to the regime of Leontiades [2] (Plut. Pe…

Leobotes

(65 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] see Labotas see Labotas Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, 5th cent. BC (Λεωβώτης; Leōbṓtēs). Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family; around 467/6 BC he issued an eisangelia against the already banished Themistocles ( Eisangelia ) because of high treason and achieved his conviction (Plut. Themistocles 23; Plut. Mor. 605E; Craterus FGrH 342 F 11). Davies 9688,XII. Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Phyllidas

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φυλλίδας/ Phyllídas, also Φιλλίδας/ Phillídas). Theban, in 379 BC scribe of the polemarch Archias [3]. He established contact with exiled Thebans around Melon and Pelopidas in Athens and made the necessary preparations for an attempt on Archias' life. Xenophon (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9) also ascribes to P. the murder of Leontiades [2] (but see Plut. Pelopidas 7-11; Plut. Mor. 577b-d; 588b; 594d; 596; 598). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R. J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 1994, 72-78  J. DeVoto, The Liberation of Thebes in 379/8 BC, in: R.F. Sutton (ed.), Stu…

Oenobius

(54 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ᾨνόβιος/ Ōinóbios). Athenian from the dḗmos of Decelea. In the year 410/409 B.C. he was in Thrace as a strategos (IG I3 101, l. 47). O. is probably identical to the person who requested  in the year 404/3 that Thucydides be recalled (Paus. 1,23,9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 2191  PA 11357.

Tagos

(144 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ταγός; tagós). Tagos (etymologically from táxis, cf. German Herzog) is usually seen as an elected (originally for life, later in the event of war: IG IX 2,257) highest official of the Thessalian League [1. 237-249; 2]. The effect of the dominance of the noble 'clans' (Aleuadae; Echecratidae; Scopadae) in the 5th cent. BC was that the office of tageía lost its significance [3. 125-127]; under Iason [2] the office temporarily gained a new prestige [5]. Recent studies, in contrast, see tagos as a genuinely local official (the official term for a high office instead being a…

Oxythemis

(75 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀξύθεμις/ Oxýthemis) from Larisa. Close confidant of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes (Phylarchus FGrH 81 F 12), awarded citizenship and cultic honours after the liberation of Athens from Macedonian occupation in 307 BC (IG II2 558; cf. Demochares FGrH 75 F 1). In 289 he led negotiations for Demetrius with Agathocles [2] (Diod. 21,15f.). Antigonus [2] had him executed (Ath. 578b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Habicht, Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte, 1956, 55-58  Id., Athen, 1995, 87.

Neogenes

(42 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νεογένης/ Neogénēs) from Euboea. In about 378/7 BC with the help of Iason [2] of Pherae he established a tyranny in Histiaea, but was expelled soon after by the population with Spartan help (Diod. Sic. 15,30,3f.). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Callaeschrus

(52 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κάλλαισχρος; Kállaischros). Son of Critias, Athenian, born about 490 BC, grand-nephew of Solon and father of the sophist  Critias (Diog. Laert. 3,1; Pl. Chrm. 153c; Pl. Prt. 316a). C. is possibly identical with an oligarch of the same name in 411 (Lys. 12,66). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 8792,VI.

Onomacles

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνομακλῆς/ Onomaklês). Athenian politician. As strategos, he led a squadron to Samos in 412/1 BC and against Miletus (Thuc. 8,25,1; 30,2). After the oligarchic coup, he belonged to the council of 400 ( tetrakósioi ), but in 411 was indicted in an eisangelía trial and escaped to avoid conviction (Plut. Mor. 833f) [1. 385]. O. later returned to Athens and belonged to the thirty ( triákonta ; Xen. Hell. 2,3,2). Lysias ( Perí tēs Onomakléous thygatrós, fr. 104 Thalheim) mentioned his daughter. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Bleckmann, Athens Weg in die Niederl…

Phoebidas

(201 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φοιβίδας/ Phoibídas). Spartan general, probably related by marriage to the house of Agesilaus [2] [1. 147f.]. In 382 BC, supposed to bring new troops to his brother Eudamidas [1], who was fighting Olynthus, on the way he marched to Thebes and in a surprise attack captured the Cadmeia, the fortress of Thebes, during the Thesmophoria (Xen. Hell.  5,2,25-36;  Diod. Sic. 15,20,1f.; Plut. Pelopidas 5; Plut. Agesilaus 23f.; Plut.  Mor. 576a-577d; Androtion FGrH 324 F 50). Xenophon (Xen.…

Nicophemus

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νικόφημος/ Nikóphēmos). Athenian, confidant of Conon [1], who in 395/4 BC made him commander of the Persian fleet (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4; Hell. Oxy. 15). In 393 he commanded a force occupying Cythera (Xen. Hell. 4,8,8) [1. 82, 126]. When he returned to Cyprus, he led a (failed) mission in aid of Evagoras [1] (389 BC) together with his son Aristophanes [1]. N. was then summarily condemned and executed at Athens, and his fortune was confiscated (Lys. 19,7; 11f.; 35f.; 42-44). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. Funke, Homonoia und Arche, 1980. PA 11066.

Polyanthes

(79 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πολυάνθης/ Polyánthēs) from Corinth commanded a squadron in a sea battle off the Achaean coast in 413 BC (Thuc. 7,34,2). Bribed by  Timocrates with Persian gold in 395, P. and Timolaus steered an anti-Spartan and probably also democratic course, which resulted in the Corinthian League (StV 225) (Xen. Hell. 3,5,1; Paus. 3,9,8; Hell. Oxy. 2,3). Corinthus (II B); Peloponnesian War (with map) Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984  H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 83.

Thessali, Thessalia

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | COR.SCH.
(Θεσσαλία/ Thessalía 'Thessaly'; Θεσσαλοί/ Thessaloí 'Thessalians', also Θεθαλοί/ Thethaloí and Φεταλοί/ Phetaloí or Πετθαλοί/ Petthaloí: [6]). [German version] I. Geography Northern Greek tribe/territory between Macedonia, Epirus and central Greece. At 9,790 km2, the region of the tetrads of Thessaliotis, Hestiaiotis, Pelasgiotis and Phthiotis (1) was the largest Greek tribal region (Str. 9,4,18). Surrounded by high mountain chains: to the north Olympus [1] (2,918 m), to the west the Pindus [1], to the south the Othrys and t…

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Teledamus

(185 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Son of Odysseus and Calypso (Τηλέδαμος; Tēlédamos). According to Eust. on Hom. Od. 16,118, the author of the Tēlegonía names a son of Odysseus and Calypso“Telegonus or Teledamus”, which would make him the brother of Nausithous [2] and Nausinous. The passage is evidently corrupt, since elsewhere Telegonus is Odysseus' son with Circe. For a discussion of conjectures: [1]. Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Scherling, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 313 f. [German version] [2] Son of Agamemnon and Cassandra (Paus.: Τελέδαμος/ Telédamos, schol. Hom. Od.: Τελέδημος/ Telé…

Mnaseas

(244 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Μνασέας; Mnaséas). [German version] [1] Politician Phocian, father of Aristotélous hetaíros (‘companion of Aristoteles [6]’) Mnason (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 11; Aristot. Pol. 1304a 10-14). Aristotle says the cause of the Third “Sacred War” was a dispute between M. and Euthycratus over an heiress, but this explanation (probably originating from Mnason) is considered inadequate. After the death of Onomarchus, in 352/1 BC Phayllus appointed M. guardian of Phalaecus and stratēgós, but he was killed shortly afterwards during a nocturnal attack by the Boeotians (Diod. 16,38,6f.). Beck, Ha…
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