1. Terminology The German word for gymnastics,
Turnen, was coined by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in the early 19th century, with some ideological baggage (Gymnastics Movement 1.); the equivalents in other languages (Eng.
ginnastica, etc.) show that the kinds of sport subsumed under the term can look back on a long tradition. Gymnastics includes floor exercises, apparatus work, vaulting, and acrobatic and general gymnastic exercises. Today the German Gymnastics Association and the
Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique also include dancing, ball gam…