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Schlitten

(796 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
Die Sch. (mhdt. slite; ital. slitta; engl. sleigh, sledge, slide, sled; schwed. släde) genannten Kufenfahrzeuge dienten in der Frühen Nz. weniger dem Hinabgleiten auf Abhängen (Rodel-Sch.) als dem Transport von Personen oder Sachen bei geschlossener Schnee- oder Eisdecke. Dies schloss aber die Verwendung zum Sport nicht aus. Sch. waren bis nach Norditalien verbreitet, weil in der Periode der Kleinen Eiszeit die Winter oft lang und andere Fortbewegungsformen außerhalb der Städte kaum möglich waren. Sch. wurden mit Muskelkraft von Menschen oder Tieren gezogen. Je nach Nutzer wu…
Date: 2019-11-19

Luftfahrt

(731 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Entwicklung der TheorieBereits im 14. Jh. wurde auf der Basis der aristotelischen Physik mehrfach logisch geschlossen, dass der sublunare Luftraum mit Schiffen befahrbar sein müsste. Das Prinzip der Luftschifffahrt ( Aeronautik) wurde mangels Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten im 15. Jh. durch Versuche verdrängt, den Flug nach Art der Vögel zu verwirklichen ( Aviatik, mit Abb.). Zu Beginn des 16. Jh.s wies Leonardo da Vinci in seinem Manuskript Sul volo degli uccelli (1505; »Über den Vogelflug«) darauf hin, dass es dazu einer starken Antriebskraft bedürfe und dass di…
Date: 2019-11-19

Ballspiel

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Erziehungsideal Seit der Renaissance versuchten humanistische Pädagogen, die Liebe zu B. in antiken Traditionen zu begründen (z. B. bei Galen), doch ist die moderne Begrifflichkeit von german. ball (ital. palla), nicht von lat. pila abgeleitet. Humanistische Pädagogen und Prinzenerzieher des 15. Jh.s wie Vittorino da Feltre oder Guarino da Verona adelten die B., indem sie sie neben die ritterlichen Übungen stellten. Mit Baldassare Castigliones Hofmann (Cortegiano, 1528) wurden sie in den Olymp der Adelserziehung erhoben: B. zielten auf das Herz des Erziehungsidea…
Date: 2019-11-19

Tierverwandlung

(1,038 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. DefinitionDas Motiv der T. ist nicht nur in Märchen und Mythen verbreitet, sondern spielte auch im europ. Volksglauben und in der christl. Theologie bis in die Frühe Nz. hinein eine Rolle. Gestützt wurde die Idee einer durch Zauberkraft, göttliche Fähigkeit oder göttliches Verhängnis bewirkten physischen Verwandlung von Männern oder Frauen in Tiergestalt seit der Renaissance durch die Rezeption antiker Texte, etwa der Metamorphosen von Ovid und von Apuleius. Obwohl diese fiktionale Texte sind, wurden sie bis ins 17. Jh. als Beleg für die Möglichkeit der T. angeführt.Wolfgang B…
Date: 2019-11-19

Weltzeit

(696 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. BedeutungUnter W. versteht man eine auf dem ganzen Planeten Erde geltende Zeit in Abhängigkeit vom Umlauf der Erde um die Sonne. Auf der Washingtoner Meridiankonferenz 1884 einigte man sich außer auf den Nullmeridian durch das engl. Greenwich auch auf die Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT) als erste allgemein gültige W. (s. u. 2.).Diese durch astronomische Messungen bestimmte mittlere Ortszeit des durch die Sternwarte von Greenwich führenden Meridians wurde 1928 in Universal Time umbenannt; seit 1972 verwendet man als W. die durch Atomuhren dargestellte Universal Time Coordinated ( UTC…
Date: 2019-11-19

Communications revolutions

(776 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. DefinitionThe term  communication revolution was coined in the first half of the 20th century by American economic historians with reference to their own national history [3]; since the 1970s, it has usually appeared in the plural (communications revolutions) [7]. It was subsequently borrowed by German scholars as  Kommunikationsrevolution [11]; [9. 2, 51 f.]; they have attempted to redefine it with reference to macrohistorical processes.Modeled after the concept of the industrial revolution (cf. Industrialization 1.3.), a series of fundamental rev…
Date: 2019-10-14

Communication

(6,688 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. ConceptIn a general sense, communication (Latin  communicatio, “making common,” “imparting”) denotes all possible forms of exchange within and between systems. Scholarly definitions have been developed in all fields from biology to sociology, but not even within the social sciences are such definitions transferable. Historiography turned its attention to the theme of communication only at a late date.Communication takes place on the microhistorical as on the macrohistorical scale. In a historical perspective, the introduction of new media of comm…
Date: 2019-10-14

Network

(759 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
The concept of the network, as developed in sociology in the late 20th century [8], can also be applied to earlier eras and is useful as a measure of structural development in the organization of the everyday world [7]. A distinction must be made between (1) networks supported by people or institutions, and (2) material forms of infrastructure that placed communications as a whole on a new foundation and brought media revolutions [2]. Further distinctions can be made between organizational and structural/material levels. On the whole it can be said that incre…
Date: 2020-04-06

Curse

(859 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
According to the definition of curse (German  Fluch) in Zedler's  Universal-Lexicon, a curse is “a speech by which we wish someone ill” [1. 1337]. In fact, to wish well (Latin  benedicere) and to wish ill (Latin  maledicere) are linked. Both rely on belief in the power of the word, particularly when that word is spoken by an authority adhering to particular formulae and rituals. To this category belong so-called “curse psalms” and “curse masses.” The curse is a counterpart to the prayer, which, directed to God, is intended to pro…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ball game

(1,106 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Educational ideal From the Renaissance on, Humanist pedagogues attempted to associate the love of ball games with ancient traditions (e.g. Galen), but the modern term derives not from the Latin pila but from the Germanic  ball (Italian  palla). Humanist teachers and princes’ tutors of the 15th century, like Vittorino da Feltre and Guarino da Verona, ennobled the ball game by placing it alongside equestrian exercises. Baldassare Castiglione’s Courtier ( Cortegiano, 1528) admitted it to the Olympus of noble education. Ball games went to the heart of the ed…
Date: 2019-10-14

Christmas

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. MeaningChristmas, the festival of the “birthday of the Lord” (Latin: nativitatis Domini, natalis Domini), has been celebrated on December 25 since 354, probably in order to suppress the birthday festival of the pagan god Sol Invictus (the Unconquered Sun). The Christmas liturgy is informed by thanksgiving for the birth of Jesus Christ and the associated Christian hope for redemption. The English designation as “the mass of Christ” is attested since late Middle English ( Christes mæsse). The German word  Weihnachten (literally “consecrated” or “holy night”), though usu…
Date: 2019-10-14

News, currentness of

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. OriginsFrom the Renaissance, it increasingly became essential to politics and emergent merchant capitalism for information to be up to date. This led to the formation of specialist systems for the professional conveyance of news. Cities, courts, monasteries, and merchants employed couriers (Messenger service). According to the sources, the first relays of mounted couriers were set up by Duke Giangaleazzo Visconti (1395–1402) of Milan. They produced the earliest surviving remains of the time sh…
Date: 2020-04-06

Gymnastics

(930 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Terminology The German word for gymnastics, Turnen, was coined by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in the early 19th century, with some ideological baggage (Gymnastics Movement 1.); the equivalents in other languages (Eng.  gymnastics, Ital.  ginnastica, etc.) show that the kinds of sport subsumed under the term can look back on a long tradition. Gymnastics includes floor exercises, apparatus work, vaulting, and acrobatic and general gymnastic exercises. Today the German Gymnastics Association and the  Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique also include dancing, ball gam…
Date: 2019-10-14

Carnival

(1,214 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Term Carnival is derived from the Latin carnislevamen and Italian carnelevare (‘removal of meat’) or simply the jocular Latin interjection carne vale (‘Meat, farewell!’), and denotes abstention from all “fleshly” pleasures at the beginning of the Lenten fast. The term carnival is widely used in the Romance languages and English, and since the 17th century in the Rhineland (German Karneval). Elsewhere in the German-speaking world, the usual terms are Fastnacht or Fasnet, and in Bavaria and Austria Fasching is commonplace (from MHG vast-schanc, the last drink before Lent).Wolfga…
Date: 2019-10-14

Fairy

(857 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
The term ‘fairy’ is derived, via French, from the Vulgar Latin fata (“goddess of destiny”; fatum = fate). The most intensive transmission of the fairy concept, which incorporates traditions from Classical Antiquity and elsewhere in the Indo-European world, has been in Celtic literature, where the enchantress Morgan le Fay (hence  “Fata Morgana”) in the world of Arthurian legend represents its most famous manifestation. The fairy tradition, already apparent in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (14th century), was rediscovered in the 16th century and given new dire…
Date: 2019-10-14

Fuggerzeitung

(973 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Name and sources The Fuggerzeitung was a collection of letters, composed in the second half of the 16th century and containing reports and messages on political and economic matters, sent to the Augsburg merchant dynasty the Fugger family. With 27 surviving volumes of these letters from all over Europe, the Fuggerzeitung is the biggest collection of its kind.In an inventory written on the death of Octavian Secundus Fugger (1600), it was described as “a miscellany of German and Romance-language reports written between 1569 and 1599 on white parchme…
Date: 2019-10-14

Influenza

(890 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. TerminologyAlthough the term  influenza appears as early as 1504 in the chronicle of the Florentine apothecary Luca Landucci, a coherent terminology was not established until 1742/1743. According to a report in the  London Magazine of 1743 (“News from Rome of a Contagious Distemper Raging There, Call’d the Influenza”), the term was borrowed into English on the occasion of the influenza epidemic of that year. At roughly the same time, people in France began to call the illness  la grippe.While the Italian term focused on the supposed cause – the “influence of the stars” ( influenz…
Date: 2019-10-14

Aerial voyage

(953 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. General In the modern period, theoretical reflections and experiments devoted to flight were flanked by reports of supposed or actual aerial voyages, which could serve as a narrative framework for the presentation of scientific observations or a social utopia. They reflected the cosmological notions of the period and—especially in the era of the Scientific Revolution—the transition from the geocentric to the Copernican model of the world (Copernican Revolution) or from Aristotelian physics to the world view of Giordano Brunos and Isaac Newtons [3]. With the progress …
Date: 2019-10-14

Courier

(710 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
Today the couriers of the early modern period are frequently confused with post riders (Mail) or messengers. All three – couriers, post riders, and messengers – had to overcome distances and bring news under the dictates of speed (Quickness)The literature on the history of communication makes a clear distinction between mail and the courier system [6]. A courier was not an employee of a messenger service or a postal organization, but was instead “a person dispatched to distant places to convey complex oral or written news regarding important matters” [1], in other words a…
Date: 2019-10-14

Everyday world

(7,635 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Theoretical aspects 1.1. The everyday world as a key historical categoryThe everyday world is both a universal and a particular category. It encompasses material circumstances and their subjective perception and interpretation in thought and feeling (Mentality), recurring behavioral routines (Rituals, games [Play, game], Sports), in some cases beings concentrated to become a habitus (Honors, Festivals, Popular culture); in a more extended sense, it also encompasses the media of perception and symbol sys…
Date: 2019-10-14
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