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(503 words)

Author(s): Ruff, Anthony William | Bretschneider, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Liturgy The Sanctus is an acclamation sung after the preface of the Eucharistic prayer. It is virtually universally used in the East and West in liturgical traditions, with increasing use in the reformed orders of less liturgical Protestant traditions. The text expresses unity of earthly worship with heavenly worship in praise of God. The text is the Trisagion based on Isaiah (Isa 6:3; see also Rev 4:8), with the added Benedictus, both of which end with “Hosanna” acclamation (see also Matt 21:9; Ps 118; 25–26a). The Trisagion (three Holys) comes ¶ from the ancient mor…


(1,708 words)

Author(s): Häußling, Angelus A. | Ratzmann, Wolfgang | Felmy, Karl Christian | Bretschneider, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. History The evening service of the Western churches in the the Liturgy of the Hours has been shaped by various traditions. Congregations gather for a liturgy of the Word in which certain Psalms are sung, Bible lessons are read, sermons are preached, and prayers are offered. Monastic communities include this service in their systematic recitation of the entire Psalter in course ( Psalterium currens). A tradition associated with house churches and cathedral churches adopted the practice of hailing the newly-lit lights of evening – among Chris…

Responsive Singing

(520 words)

Author(s): Bretschneider, Wolfgang
[German Version] is liturgical chant that alternates between different persons or ensembles. A large portion of the liturgical vocal repertory is responsive, as is only appropriate, given that by nature worship is ¶ primarily dialogical. Singing (or speaking) lengthy texts in unison is alien to the liturgy. Since earliest times, we find a variety of roles in all liturgical celebrations: presider, soloists (Cantor), schola (Singing school), congregation. Occasionally instruments, especially the organ, are included in the dialogu…


(1,010 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward | Bretschneider, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy Litanies (from λετανεία/ letaneía, “public supplication”) are common among many worship traditions. A singer performs invocations or prayer request, to which the congregation each time responds with an identical request (e.g. Kyrie). Litanic patterns appear in the Old Testament (e.g. Ps. 136). Extra-biblical Jewish litanies include the selihot, based on Exod 34:6f., originally composed for days of fasting. While evidence for ¶ insistent prayer exists as early as Polycarp ( Pol. 12.3), clear evidence for litanies in Chris…

Widor, Charles-Marie

(182 words)

Author(s): Bretschneider, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1844, Lyon – Mar 12, 1937, Paris), French composer and organist. Widor studied in Brussels with François-Joseph Fétis and Nicolas-Jacques Lemmens. From 1870 to 1933, he served as organist of the church of St.-Sulpice in Paris. After 1890 he taught organ at the Conservatoire de Musique; after 1896 he taught composition, succeeding Theodore Dubois. His students included Charles Tournemire, Louis Vierne, Marcel Dupré, and A. Schweitzer. The development of the symphonic organ…