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Ramsey, Arthur Michael

(136 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1904, Cambridge, UK – Apr 23, 1988, Oxford, UK), archbishop of Canterbury, was a much beloved and admired priest, theologian, and bishop of broad, yet traditional, Anglo-Catholic leanings. After Cambridge Ramsey was ordained in the Church of England and served in both parish and university appointments. In 1952 Ramsey became bishop of Durham, in 1956 archbishop of York, and in 1961 archbishop of Canterbury, where he labored tirelessly in mission work and the wider Anglica…

More, Hannah

(155 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1745, Stapleton, Avon, near Bristol – Sep 7, 1833, Clifton), evangelical writer and philanthropist. More was educated at a school in Bristol established by one of her sisters. Around 1773 she came into contact with the literary circle that gathered around S. Johnson, who urged her to publish her poems and plays. She later became identified with the evangelical Clapham Sect, with J. Newton serving as her principal spiritual adviser. Besides her numerous publications she est…

Law, William

(253 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1686, King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire – Apr 9, 1761, King's Cliffe), Nonjuror and English theologian. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1711. In 1714, upon the accession of George I, Law refused the Oath of Allegiance, was deprived of his fellowship, and joined the Jacobites (Jacobitism). He later served as private tutor to the Gibbons family in Putney. In 1740, he retired to his birthplace, where he became domestic chaplain to a small ho…

Sancroft, William

(205 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1617, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England – Nov 24, 1693, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England), archbishop of Canterbury and Nonjuror. Fellow of Emmanuel College in Cambridge from 1642 to 1651, he fled to the Continent after being rejected from his Cambridge fellowship by the Puritans. After the Restoration in 1660, he gained rapid preferment in the Church, being elevated to archbishop in 1668. While in office, he labored in various ways to strengthen the spiritual and political …

Jewel, John

(191 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] (May 24, 1522, Buden, Devon – Sep 23, 1571, Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire). At Oxford, Jewel, who was influenced by Peter Martyr Vermigli, became one of the intellectual leaders of the English Reformation. Upon the succession of Mary Tudor in 1553, he fled to the continent. At Frankfurt he opposed J. Knox and defended the Book of Common Prayer of 1552. Later he and Vermigli traveled together to Zürich. Upon the accession of Elizabeth I (1558) he returned to England. In 1560 Jewel was appointed bishop of Salisbury, where he exercised a vig…

Sharp, Granville

(110 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1735, Durham, England – Jul 6, 1813, Fulham, a borough of London), evangelical and abolitionist (Slavery). In 1765 he became involved in opposing the slave trade, advancing numerous legal ¶ cases on behalf of slaves held in England. His efforts culminated in the famous “Fall Somerset” case of 1772 which outlawed the forcible removal of slaves from the country. Sharp also developed an interest in African culture and assisted in the relocation of a number of freed slaves to Sierra Leone. Grayson Carter Bibliography Memoirs of Granville Sharp, ed. T. Burgess, 1820 E.…

Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick Stephen

(186 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 2, 1802, Seville – Feb 15, 1865, London), cardinal archbishop of Westminster. Born in Spain, son of Irish parents, he was ¶ raised in Ireland and England. He attended Unshaw College, Durham, before studying at the English College in Rome (D.D. 1824). After his ordination in 1825, he rose quickly through a succession of appointments, including rector of the English College in Rome (1828), coadjutor to Bishop Walsh, vicar-apostolic and president of St. Mary’s College, Oscott (1840). After the reestab…

Marsh, Herbert

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 10, 1757, Faversham, England – May 1, 1839, Peterborough, England), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Cambridge, in 1779 he became a fellow of St. John's College. While studying in Germany under J.D. Michaelis, he was exposed to the new biblical scholarship, later translating Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament. In 1807 Marsh was appointed Lady Margaret Professor at Cambridge. With his enthusiastically received lectures on biblical criticism (1809–1816), he was among the first to popularize the new German…

Simeon, Charles

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1759, Reading, Berkshire – Nov 13, 1836, Cambridge, UK), English evangelical clergyman. In 1782 he was made a fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and, in the following year, appointed vicar of Holy Trinity Church. Despite initial opposition, Simeon persevered, eventually becoming one of the most influential figures in the Church of England. His rise to prominence was due to a combination of influences, including his innovative parish ministry, his skill in nurturing seve…

Underhill, Evelyn

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1875, Wolverhampton – Jun 15, 1941, London), author of spiritual works. Educated at King’s College, London, in 1907 she experienced a religious conversion of a mystical nature. Her early spiritual views were described in her first book, Mysticism (1911, Mysticism). Before long she met Friedrich v. Hügel, who would later become her spiritual director. Under his influence, her interest in historical Christianity developed so that she abandoned her mystical, intellectual, Neo-Platonist views in favor of a more pra…

Tait, Archibald Campbell

(167 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1811, Edinburgh – Dec 3, 1882, Episcopal Place at Addington), archbishop of Canterbury. Educated at Edinburgh and Oxford, Tait converted to the Church of England in 1830. Three years later, he was appointed tutor at Balliol College, Oxford. Though sympathetic to the aims of the Oxford Movement, in 1841 he joined in the public protest against Tract 90 (J.H. Newman). Talented and widely admired, Tait quickly advanced through a succession of clerical appointments, including headmaster of Rugby (1842, succeeding T. Arnold); bishop of…

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The SPG was established under royal charter by T. Bray in 1701 to supply the “want of learned and orthodox ministers” in the plantations, colonies, and “factories beyond the seas.” The rapidly expanding British Empire presented both challenges and opportunities for the Church of England. The SPG set out to “settle the State of Religion” for the colo­nists before undertaking “the conversion of the Natives.” During the 18th century the SPG’s efforts focused on the American colonies,…

Thornton, Henry

(131 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1760, London – Jan 16, 1815, Kensington Gore), philanthropist, banker, member of parliament, and abolitionist (Abolitionism). Younger son of the wealthy evangelical merchant John Thornton, he worked in banking before being elected member of parliament in 1782. His writings on economic affairs were much admired. In Parliament he was active in humanitarian affairs and, as a member of the celebrated Clapham Sect, joined with W. Wilberforce in advancing the abolitionist cause…

Moody, Dwight Lyman

(292 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 5, 1837, Northfield, MA – Dec 22, 1899, Northfield, MA), evangelist. Moody left his birthplace in New England and went to Chicago, where he gave up a promising career in the shoe business to work as a minister (esp. with the YMCA [Young Men's Christian Association: II]). During the Civil War he converted wounded soldiers; thereafter he returned to Chicago, where he organized conferences for Sunday School teachers. There he met I.D. Sankey, whose music contributed greatly to t…

Stillingfleet, Edward

(94 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Apr 17, 1635, Cranborne, Dorset – Mar 27, 1699, Westminster), Latitudinarian theologian and antiquary. After becoming a fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, in 1653, he published a series of works, including his Irenicum (1659), Origines Sacrae (1662), and Rational Account (1664), which established his reputation as a theologian and brought rapid preferment. He then became, in succession, archdeacon of London, dean of St. Paul’s, and bishop of Worcester. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works: The Works, ed. R. Bentley, 6 vols., 1709/1710 On Stillingfleet: W. …

Liddon, Henry Parry

(182 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1829, North Stoneham, Hampshire – Sep 9, 1890, Weston-super-Mare, Gloucestershire) was an Anglican cleric. Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1852. After a succession of church appointments, he became, in 1870, a canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, where his able preaching attracted sizable congregations. A leader of the catholic revival (Oxford Movement), Liddon opposed the advance of both its ritualist and liberal-Catholic wings; the publication of Lux Mundi (1889) proved particularly distressing as well as the growing use of criti…

Ritualism

(621 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Martin | Carter, Grayson
[German Version] I. Ethics The term ritualism denotes participation in the rituals (Rite and ritual) of a community or religion without inner conviction. It is used in this sense in sociology, ethnology, and religious studies. The outward form of the word itself, a pejorative noun (like dogmatism and fundamentalism), appears to formulate succinctly the ethical assessment of the phenomenon it denotes. The negative assessment of the phenomena classified as “ritualism” is burdened with at least two problems: (1) it is hardly possible to assess with reasonabl…

Raikes, Robert

(164 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1735, Gloucester – Apr 5, 1811, Gloucester), founder of the Sunday School movement. Raikes inherited a successful newspaper, the Gloucester Journal, and used the proceeds to promote a variety of philanthropic causes, especially prison reform. In 1780 he and a local curate established a Sunday School in Gloucester, and Raikes publicized its opening in the Journal. The idea attracted wide attention, and Sunday Schools were quickly set up throughout Britain, Ireland, and America. J. Wesley remarked that the schools were “one of th…

London, University of

(268 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1826 the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell, the progressive politicians Henry Brougham and Joseph Hume, as well as philosopher James Mill founded University College, London, to provide a university education for men who were excluded, on religious grounds, from studying at Oxford and Cambridge universities. Dismissed by its critics as “the godless college in Gower Street,” it was joined two years later by an Anglican rival, King's College. In 1836, the government established the Un…

Watson, Richard

(111 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1781, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire – Jan 8, 1833, London), Wesleyan Methodist theologian (Methodists: I). Watson was a member of a small group of clergy and laity that contributed to the formation of Wesleyan Methodist identity, following the death of J. Wesley and its separation from the Church of England. Appointed to a succession of influential positions in the Church, he also published widely, clarifying and extending Wesley’s theology. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works include: Theological Institutes, 6 vols., 1823–1829 On Watson: T. Jackson, M…
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