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Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit

(312 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] is the term for a number of individuals and groups persecuted as heretical; they do not constitute a homogeneous organization, even if some connections exist between individual representatives – mostly laypersons, including a disproportionately large number of women. Nor can a unified doctrinal system be identified. More instructive than the stereotypical lists of heresies, as were produced by the church in the context of persecution, are direct sources from the series of Brothers and Sisters, especially the Miroir des simples âmes of Marguerite …

Charles II of England

(189 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Stuart of England; May 29, 1630, London – Feb 2, 1685, London), king of England. The son of the executed Charles I of England, he was exiled in 1651, but answered the call of his country to assume the crown in 1660. Thus began the Restoration period, which was characterized by a balance of power with respect to the interests of the Crown and of Parliament as well as by the reestablishment of the Anglican state church (Church of England, Anglic…

Netter, Thomas

(166 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Waldensis; c. 1372, Saffron Walden,Essex –Nov 2, 1430, Rouen), Carmelite monk. Ordained to the priesthood in 1396, he studied and taught theology in Oxford. He was court preacher to Henry IV and confessor to his successors. As a convinced conciliarist he took part in the reforming Councils of Basel (Basel, Council of) and Pisa (Pisa, Council of); he attended the Council of Constance (Constance, Council of) as his king’s representative and (from 1414) provincial of his order. He f…

More, Sir Thomas

(432 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Morus; Feb 6/7, 1477/1478, London – Jul 6, 1535, London), prominent English Humanist, politician, and controversial theologian (Controversial theology). The son of a jurist, he attended school in London and subsequently became a page in the household of Cardinal Archbishop John Morton (1420–1500), who sent him to Oxford to study. In spite of his academic interests, his father insisted on an additional legal training at the Inns of Court. Thomas More worked as a lawyer from 1501 o…

Latimer, Hugh

(177 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485, Thurcaston, Leicestershire – Oct 16, 1555, Oxford). The son of a free peasant, Latimer studied theology from 1506 onward at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A. 1510, M.A. 1514). Having initially defended the old faith as a preacher and university lecturer, he joined the Reformation around 1524 under the influence of T. Bilney. Highly esteemed at the court of Henry VIII for a time (appointment as bishop of Worcester in 1535), he fell out of favor from ¶ 1539 during the turmoil surrounding Anne Boleyn; he delivered his most famous sermons under Edward VI. …

Manton, Thomas

(173 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1620, Lydeard St. Lawrence – Oct 18, 1677, London). After studying at Wadham College, Oxford (BA 1639), Manton, the son of a clergyman, began to preach and rapidly became the undisputed leader of the Presbyterians in London. He rose ¶ to become a scribe for the Westminster Assembly and often preached before the Long Parliament. After the fall of O. Cromwell, he sympathized with the Restoration under Charles II, but when the hopes of the Nonconformists (Dissenters) for concessions from the Anglicans were dashed, he refu…

Lollards

(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-¶ side their parishes; a penalty for possessing the English Bible and religious literature in the vernacular) and to ini…

Ebner, Christina

(268 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Good Friday, 1277, Nuremberg – Dec 27, 1356, Engelthal Convent). The patrician's daughter entered the Engelthal Convent (Dominican) at the age of twelve. Her uncompromising conceptualization of the imitatio Christi and cloistered lifestyle led to corporal suffering and isolation within the community. Beginning in 1291, Ebner had extraordinary spiritual experiences that brought her fame in subsequent decades even outside her convent (1350…

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), supervised Catholic interests in England; in 1840 four more were added. Various factors, most especially Irish immigration, the rise of the Oxford Movement, and the…

Women

(11,554 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Bird, Phyllis A. | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise | Albrecht, Ruth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Traditionally research on religion has rarely dealt with women. Exceptions include Moriz Winternitz ( Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, 1915–1916) and F. Heiler ( Die Frau in den Religionen der Menschheit, 1977). In the 1970s, gender studies introduced a broad paradigm shift, which also affected religious studies. The principle that has guided this change from the traditional approach is that homo religiosus is not coincident with vir religiosus but equally has to include femina religiosa. The various questions can be assigned to th…
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