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Polydectes

(110 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυδέκτης/ Polydéktēs). [German version] [1] Mythical colonist and king of Seriphus Son of Magnes [2], mythical colonist and king of Seriphus, brother of Dictys [1]. He wanted to force Danae, who had been stranded in a box with her son Perseus, into marriage, but Perseus turned him to stone with the head of Medusa (Gorgo [1]), which he had brought from the Hyperborei, and made Dictys king (Pind. P. 12; Apollod. 2,24-46). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet of Hades Poetic epithet of the god of the underworld (the 'receiver of many', the 'hospitable'; Hades, Pl…

Opora

(130 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀπώρα/ Opṓra). Goddess of rich harvests, especially of the wine harvest and its season. She, together with Theoria ('festive delegation'), accompanies Eirene [1] ('peace') in Aristoph. Pax 523, 706ff. The Attic comic writers Alexis (PCG II fr. 169f.) and Amphis (PCG II fr. 47) both wrote a work called O.: Sirius the star comes to earth and falls in love with O. When he is unable to win her, his amorous passion becomes so great that the people turn to the gods for help. The north wind Boreas orders his sons to obtain O. for Sir…

Plexippus

(57 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πλήξιππος/ Plḗxippos). Son of Thestius, brother of Althaea; participant in the Calydonian Hunt; P. is killed by his nephew  Meleager [1], because he intended to steal from  Atalante the pelt of the Calydonian boar, which Meleager had given her (Apollod. 1,62; Ov. Met. 8,305; 434; 440; Hyg. Fab. 173; 174; 244). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periphas

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περίφας; Períphas). [German version] [1] Hero at Troy, killed by Ares Mythical hero at Troy, from Aetolia, killed by Ares (Hom. Il. 5,842. 847). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus Mythical hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,476). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, herald of Anchises, in whose shape Apollo roused Aeneas [1] to battle (Hom. Il. 17,323). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Archaic Attic king before even Cecrops Mythical archaic king of Attica, before even Cecrops; venerate…

Mynes

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μύνης; Mýnēs). [German version] [1] Ruler of a city in the Troad Mythological ruler of a city in the Troad, during the destruction of which the husband of Briseis was killed by  Achilles (Hom. Il. 19,296). He is probably identical with the son of Euenus, the brother of Epistrophus (Hom. Il. 2,692). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Progenitor of the Attic dynasty Mythological progenitor of the Attic dynasty, father of Pedias, the wife of king Cranaus (Apollod. 3,186). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Xenodamus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ξενόδαμος; Xenódamos). 7th century BC Greek choral lyric poet from Cythera. In the generation after Terpander, together with Thaletas and Xenocritus [1] of Locri he took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. ibid.), which in Antiquity were also classified as Hyporchḗmata (Plut. loc.cit.; [1. 82],  cf. [2. 15-17; 3. 99-100; 4. 335]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992 2 Id., Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5. Jh. v. Chr., in: A.…

Onocentaur

(128 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (masc.) or onocentaura (fem.) (Ὀνοκένταυρος/ Onokéntauros, Ὀνοκένταυρα/ Onokéntaura). Mythological monster. The word is first found in the LXX, in which the name O. is used for the Hebrew word for 'jackal' (Is 13:22; 34:14). The Biblical explanation appears to consider the O. to be a demon (Theodoretus of Cyrus, Commentary on Is 13:22). In Greek and Latin non-Christian literature it is first found in Ael. NH 17,9: there its face is human, as are its body from the chest to the loins and i…

Priolas

(48 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πριόλας; Priólas). Local hero of Priola near Heraclea [7], brother of Bormus and Mariandynus (Poll. 4,55). Killed in battle; Heracles [1] takes part in his funeral games; every year ritual threnodies are held in his honour (Apoll. Rhod. 2,780-785 with schol.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periclymenus

(108 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περικλύμενος/ Periklýmenos, Latin Periclymenus). [German version] [1] Epithet of Pluto Epithet of Pluto (Hesych. s.v. Π.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Poseidon Son of Poseidon. In the war of the Seven against Thebes he kills Parthenopaeus (Eur. Phoen. 1156ff.; Apollod. 3,75). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Neleus and Chloris Son of Neleus [1] and Chloris [4] (Hom. Od. 11,281ff.). Took part in the campaign of the Argonautai (Apoll. Rhod. 1,56ff.). Despite his ability to change form he was killed by  Heracles [1] …

Ariphron

(112 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] From Sicyon, choral lyricist (performance in Athens: 406/398 BC: IG II2 3092). Writer of a  paean to  Hygiea, famous up to the imperial period in many places. The poem, written in dactylo-epitrites pleaded for assistance from ‘Health’, personified as a deity (not yet genealogically connected with Apollo/Asclepius). It certainly belongs in the context of the Asclepius cult of Epidaurus and Athens [3]. Erroneously associated with  Licymnius [1; 2] by some researchers.  Choral lyrics Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Keyßner, PhW 53, 1933, 1289-1296 2 U. v. Wi…

Polypoetes

(129 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυποίτης/ Polypoítēs). [German version] [1] Participant in the Trojan War Son of Peirithous and Hippodamia [2], takes part in the Trojan War with 40 ships, mostly mentioned together with Leonteus [1] (Hom. Il. 2,740 ff.; 12,182 ff.; 23,836 ff.; cf. Apollod. 3,130; Apollod. epit. 3,14). According to Quint. Smyrn. 12,318, he was one of the heroes inside the Trojan Horse. After the war, he goes to Colophon with Calchas (Apollod. epit. 6,2) and founds Aspendus (Eust. ad Hom. Il. 2,740). He was depicted together with Acamas in Polygnotus' [1] painting in the léschē

Prosymnus

(168 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πρόσυμνος/ Prós(h)ymnos; Prosumnus in Arnob. 5,28, wrongly Pól(h)ymnos in Paus. 2,37,5). Deity in the retinue of Dionysus. P. showed the god the entrance to the underworld at Lerna, when Dionysus wished to bring his mother Semele back from Hades (Paus. ibid.). The broader myth places P. in a homoerotic relationship with Dionysus: in Clem. Al. Protreptikos 2,34 (cf. Arnob. 5,28), P. promises to reveal the way if the god acquiesces to carnal pleasures. The latter agrees to do so on his re…

Philodamus

(244 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φιλόδαμος; Philódamos). Choral lyricist from Scarpheia. He wrote a paean to Dionysus, recorded on an inscription, and performed in 340/339 BC at the theoxenia (sacred meal) in Delphi. In return, he and his family received a wealth of privileges in Delphi, where the poem appears to have played an important role in the new definition of Dionysus as a 'second Apollo'. By progressive stages the portrayal of Dionysus resembles the traditional picture of Apollo: the story of his birth m…

Nymphs

(305 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (νύμφαι/ nýmphai, lat. nymphae). Female nature daimones in human form. Νύμφη ( nýmphē) means ‘young woman’ or ‘bride’ (cf. lat. nubere: ‘to marry’), hence a ‘young woman of marriageable age’. In Homer the term is frequently used for human women (Hom. Il. 3,130; 9,536; Hom. Od. 5 passim), but the concept of nymphs as nature deities already exists as well (Hom. Il. 6,420; 20,8; 24,616 etc.). Nymphs are active wherever there is life in nature. Despite their divinity they are not immortal. They usually appear as groups, often a chain of dancers or t…

Polybus

(651 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πόλυβος; Pólybos). [German version] [1] Name of numerous peripheral figures in Greek mythology Name of numerous peripheral figures in Greek mythology, e.g. a Trojan, son of  Antenor [1] (Hom. Il. 11,59), killed by Neoptolemus [1] (Quint. Smyrn. 8,86); an Ithacan, suitor of Penelope, killed by Eumaeus (Hom. Od. 22,243 and 284), also his father (Hom. Od. 1,399); a Phaeacian (Hom. Od. 8,373); a mythical king of Thebes (Hom. Od. 4,126). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical king of Corinth Mythical king of Corinth, husband of Merope [4] or Periboea [4]. They bring …

Pallas

(560 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Parker, Robert (Oxford)
[German version] [1] Attic hero (Πάλλας/ Pállas). Attic hero, eponym of Pallene [3], son of Pandion [1], brother of Aegeus, Lycus [8] and Nisus [1]. After Pandion's death, the brothers divided up Attica, with Aegeus as its king. P. and his 50 sons wanted to usurp the rule but were killed by Aegeus' son Theseus (cf. Soph. TrGF 4 F 24; Philochorus FGrH 328 F 107; schol. Lys. 58; schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1223; Apollod. Epit. 1,11; Apollod. 3,206; the battle and defeat of P. are described in Diod. Sic. 4,60; Apollod. Epit. 1,11; Paus. 1,22,2; 1,28,10; Hyg. Fab. 244; Plut. Theseus 13). Käppel, Lutz (Ki…

Heresy

(780 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] I. Christian Term used to delineate unwelcome religious teachings divergent from orthodoxy. In Pre-Christian and non-Christian contexts, the Greek term   haíresis (αἵρεσις, Latin haeresis [5]) was still entirely value-free: the basic meaning ‘to take’, ‘to choose’ evolves into ‘religious or philosophical school of thought’, ‘school perspective’, as well as ‘member of a school of thought’, ‘(fragmentation into) parties’, ‘sect’, cf. for example the titles in Lucian, Hermótimos ḕ perì hairéseōn; Antipater of Tarsus, Katà tôn hairéseōn; Varro, Perì hairéseōn (M…

Makaron Nesoi

(326 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(αἱ τῶν μακάρων νῆσοι; hai tôn makárōn nêsoi, Lat. insulae fortunatae, ‘Islands of the blessed'). [German version] [1] Mythical country Since Hes. Op. 167-173, the mythical country to which heroes are transported - instead of to dark, mouldy Hades like ‘normal people’ - when their lives on earth are over. The concept of the makaron nesoi (MN) is closely linked with the idea of Elysium (Hom. Od. 4,561ff.) as the place were the blessed reside after death (cf. Pind. Ol. 2,68-80; Hdt. 3,26; Aristoph. Vesp. 640; Eur. Hel. 1677; Aristot. Protrepticus fr. …

Neaera

(250 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Νέαιρα; Néaira). [German version] [1] Helios' mistress Helios' mistress, mother of the cowherds tending their father's herd on Thrinacie (Hom. Od. 12,133). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Strymon's mistress Strymon's mistress and mother of Euadne, who was spouse of Argos [I 1] (Apollod. 2,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Pereus Daughter of Pereus, spouse of Aleus [1], mother of Auge [2] (Apollod. 3,102). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Spouse of Aetas Spouse of Aetas (alsoIdyia; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,240). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Ne(i)leus

(207 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Founder of Miletos (Νειλεύς/ Neileús; Νηλεύς/ Nēleús; Νείλεως/ Neíleōs). Mythical founder of the city of Miletus [2]; from Pylos; son of the Attic king Codrus, brother of Medon [5]; since he is second to his brother in the succession, he leaves Attica with a group of Athenians und Ionians from Pylos, settles the Ionian cities in Asia Minor, founds Miletus and the Milesian dynasty of rulers. His son Aepytus founds Priene (Hellanicus FGrH 125 F 10; Hdt. 9,97; Callim. Iambi fr. 191,76; Str. 14,1,3; Paus. 7,2,1ff). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Greek surgeon a…
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