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Tanchelm

(143 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] (gest.1115 Antwerpen). Asketischer Wanderprediger, vermutlich Laie, zeitweilig in der Umgebung Graf Roberts II. von Flandern. 1112 soll er sich in Rom um eine Lösung der Inseln an der Scheldemündung (Seeland) aus dem Bistum Utrecht und um ihre Unterstellung unter das Bistum Thérouanne (Erzbistum Reims) bemüht haben. Auf der Heimreise vom Erzbf. von Köln verhaftet, wurde er vom Utrechter Domklerus der Ketzerei beschuldigt. Zu den klischeehaften Vorwürfen gehört die Ablehnung des K…

Oxford

(825 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] Oxford, Universität. In dem erstmals 912 erwähnten, in angelsächsischer Zeit gegründeten, von den Normannen mit Mauern umgebenen Ort am Schnittpunkt wichtiger Verkehrswege gab es schon im 12.Jh. Schulen für die artes liberales, Recht und Theol., aus denen sich an der Wende zum 13.Jh. die U. entwickelte. Nach einem Konflikt mit der Stadtgemeinde verließen 1209 die meisten Magister und Studenten O.; ein Teil von ihnen gründete die U. Cambridge. Mit der Rückkehr eines anderen Teils n…

Petrus Comestor

(205 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] (Manducator; frühes 12.Jh. Troyes – 1178/79 Paris). Nach Studien in Troyes (hier seit 1147 Dekan der Kathedrale und Kanoniker des Stifts St. Loup), Tours und Paris wurde er 1159 Nachfolger seines Lehrers Petrus Lombardus an der Domschule von Paris, 1168 Kanzler von Notre-Dame. In seinen letzten Jahren lebte er im Chorherrenstift St. Victor. Aus seiner Lehrtätigkeit sind zahlreiche – meist ungedr. – Werke erhalten: Glossen (Glossa ordinaria) zu den Evv., zum Ps.-Komm. und (erstmal…

Pico della Mirandola

(666 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] 1.Giovanni (24.2.1463 Mirandola bei Modena – 17.11.1494 Florenz). Der Sohn des Grafen von Mirandola studierte seit 1477 Kirchenrecht, artes liberales, Philos. und Lit. v.a. in Bologna, Ferrara, Padua, Paris und Perugia. Neben Griech. lernte er auch Hebr. und Arab. Wiederholt besuchte er Florenz, wo er sich mit Lorenzo de' Medici und seinem Kreis anfreundete, bes. mit Marsilio Ficino, Angelo Poliziano (1454–1494) und Girolamo Benivieni (1453–1542). Nachdem er sich in wenigen Jahre…

Tübingen

(1,636 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Universität 1. Die U.T. wurde 1477 im Verlauf der sog. »zweiten Gründungswelle« dt. U. durch Graf Eberhard im Bart als württembergische Landesuniversität im südlichen Teil des ehemals zweigeteilten Landes gegründet (päpstl. Privileg 1476, kaiserliche Bestätigung 1484). Zur materiellen Absicherung der Professuren verlegte der Graf acht der zehn Chorherrenpfründen und zwei Drittel der Einkünfte des Säkularkanonikerstifts Sindelfingen an die Pfarrkirche St. Georg von T., führte ab…

Remigius

(88 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] von Auxerre (nach 841 – 2.5. wohl 908 Paris), Mönch des Klosters St. Germain in Auxerre, hier auch Nachfolger seines Lehrers Heiricus, ca.893 an der Erneuerung der Schule von Reims tätig, seit 900 Lehrer in Paris. Vf. mehr als 20 im MA viel gelesene, aber meist ungedr. gebliebene Werke: Komm. zu antiken und frühma. Grammatikern und Dichtern, zu Gen und Pss, zu Boet.cons. und Opuscula sacra sowie eine Meßerklärung. Ulrich Köpf Bibliography L'école carolingienne d'Auxerre, hg. von D. Iogna-Prat/C. Jeudy/G. Lobrichon, 1991.

Speculum humanae salvationis

(232 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] Speculum humanae salvationis, bedeutendstes und am weitesten verbreitetes typologisches, Texte und Bilder miteinander verbindendes Werk des Spät-MA. Es knüpft an den heilsgesch. Aufbau der Biblia pauperum (Armenbibel) an und erweitert ihn thematisch bes. um Szenen des Marienlebens und der Passion Jesu sowie durch Ausgestaltung der Texte zu Traktaten. Titel (S.h.s.) und Jahr (1324) der »nova compilatio« sind schon in frühen Hsn. des 14.Jh. bezeugt. Ob sie, wie lange angenommen, vo…

Summen, theologische

(399 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . Als Summa (S.; Summae, später auch: Summula[e]) wird seit dem 12.Jh. die wiss. Lit. bez., in der das gesamte wichtige Wissen eines Sachgebiets knapp zusammengefaßt ist (Robert von Melun: singulorum brevis comprehensio). Dabei kann es sich um verschiedene Disziplinen handeln: S. grammaticae (grammaticalis), S. super Priscianum, S. dictaminis oder artis notariae, S. logicae (Summulae dialectices, logicales, logicae), S. de modis significandi, S. philosophiae, Summula philosophiae…

Jerusalem, the Heavenly

(818 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The notion of a new Jerusalem, an eschatological city of God on Mount Zion is already developed in the Old Testament (Zion Pss; Isa 28:16; 54:11f.; Ezek 40:2; 48:30–35; etc.); it was further nurtured by early Judaism (Qumran; 4 Ezra; etc.). The tendency to separate the heavenly Jerusalem from the earthly one, already apparent in the OT texts, became stronger, especially after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 ce. Thus 2 Bar. 4:2–6 states that the true Jerusalem intended by God is not the visible city; it is instead the preexistent Jerusalem, …

Leclercq, Jean

(248 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1911, Avesnes, France – Oct 27, 1993, Clervaux, Luxembourg), a Benedictine monk, was one of the most prolific medievalists of the second half of the 20th century. Having studied in Rome and Paris, he also lectured in various places (esp. in Rome). In 1941, after conducting research on the Scholasticism of the 13th to 15th centuries, Leclercq turned to the partly still unpublished monastic literature of the Middle Ages, especially of the 11th and 12th centuries. His extens…

Kilwardby, Robert

(246 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (died Sep 10, 1279, Viterbo). The first reliable date from his life is his election as provincial master of the English Dominicans in September 1261. Working back, earlier dates may be deduced: studies at the Parisian faculty of arts in the 1230s, M.A. around 1237, lectureships in Paris until the mid-1240s, then return to England and entry into the Order of Preachers, theological studies in Oxford (c. 1252–1254 ¶ lecturer on the Sentences), Magister regens of theology in 1254. Having been elected archbishop of Canterbury in 1272, Robert Kilwardby t…

Scholasticism

(2,856 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Terminology and Assessment Ever since the emergence of medieval studies in the 19th century, the noun Scholasticism has been used as a collective term for a particular kind of scholarly method, especially in medieval philosophy (II) and theology. The adjective scholastic, on which it is based, has a history going back to Aristotle ( Politica, Ethica Nicomachea). The focus of Greek σχολαστικός and Latin scholasticus on the realm of academic instruction (“related to schools,” “educated,” etc.), central to the modern use of scholasticism, had already taken place…

Canterbury

(535 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Seat of a bishopric in the county of Kent, England. Situated at an important road junction during the Roman period, Canterbury became the main settlement of the Cantiani in the first century ce and shows evidence of Christianization from the beginning of the 4th century. The conquest of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons dealt a severe blow to the development of the city. King Ethelbert made it the capital of the kingdom of Kent, while the Roman monk Augustine of Canterbury, a missionary dispatched by Pop…

Bonus, John

(101 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (1168, Mantua? – 1249, Budriolo, Romagna). A layperson who led a life of penitence as a hermit beginning in 1209 in the small village of Budriolo on the northern margins of the Apennines. He founded a hermit community named after him in 1217, at the earliest; it lived according to the Augustinian Rule (Augustine, rule of) and became an order active in pastoral care in northern Italy which was incorporated in 1256 into the order of the Augustinian Hermits. Ulrich Köpf Bibliography K. Elm, “Italienische Eremitengemeinschaften des 12. und 13. Jh.,” in idem, Vitasfratrum, 199…

Genoa

(297 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Genoa is the capital of the Liguria region and a major Italian port on the Gulf of Genoa, on the southern escarpment of the Ligurian Apennines (1998: 642,000 inhabitants). Settled since the 5th century bce by the Ligurians, then a Roman municipium, whose first Christian bishop is attested in 381 ce (it belonged to Milan until 1133, since then an archdiocese). Already a center of trade in the 6th century, the now wealthy Genoa came in the 11th century into competition with Pisa, emerging victorious, after a long struggle, in 1284.…

Alfonso X, the Wise

(158 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Nov 26, 1221, Toledo – Apr 4, 1284, Seville), king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. As the grandson of Philip of Swabia, he claimed the Hohenstaufen throne and embarked on an imperialistic policy embracing the entire Mediterranean region. His political ambitions came to nothing; he was more important as a lawgiver who sought to create a uniform code of law for Castile, historian (he wrote or directed the writing of a history of Spain, Estoria de España, and a universal history, Grande e general estoria), and promoter of astronomy, music, and poetry (427 Cantigas de S.…

Ludolf of Saxony

(180 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (c. 1300, northern Germany – Apr 10, 1378, Straßburg). Initially a Dominican, he was a Carthusian after c. 1340 (Straßburg, Coblenz [Prior], Mainz, Straßburg). His major work is the Vita Jesu Christi, a work based on the gospel harmony of Zacharias of Besançon (Chrysopolitanus, first half of the 12th cent.), early church authors and medieval, meditative and historicizing Jesus literature. It does not simply recount Jesus' life, but seeks, in individual sections (structured according to the scheme of lectio, meditatio and oratio and enriched by introductions an…

Angela of Foligno

(166 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (1248/1249, Foligno – Jan 4, 1309, Foligno). Influenced by the Franciscans at an early age, as a wife and mother Angela experienced a conversion to a life of asceticism and charity during a pilgrimage to Assisi in 1285. In 1291, after her immediate family had died, she joined the Franciscan Third Order. She lived with a female companion; a Franciscan who was related to her served as her confessor. At times a loose circle of disciples (including Ubertino of Casale) gathered about the magistra theologorum. Her confessor translated her ve…

Peter Comestor

(237 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Petrus; Manducator; early 12th cent., Troyes – 1178/1179, Paris). After studies in Troyes (where he became dean of the cathedral in 1147 and a canon of the abbey of St. Loup), Tours, and Paris, in 1159 he succeeded his teacher Peter Lombard at the cathedral school in Paris. In 1168 he became chancellor of Notre-Dame. During his last years, he lived in the Augustinian abbey of St. Victor. From his time as a teacher, many works have survived, mostly never published in print: glosses (Glossa ordinaria) on the Gospels, a commentary on the Psalms and (the first) on the Sentences of…

William of Hirsau

(260 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (1026, Bavaria – Jul 5, 1091, Hirsau), who was of noble birth, was entrusted by his parents as an oblate (I) to the Benedictine abbey of St. Emmeram in Regensburg, where he was taught by Otloh of St. Emmeram. While still in Regensburg, he wrote two works on the quadrivium in dialogue form: De astronomia and De musica. In 1069 he was called to Hirsau as abbot (consecrated in 1071). He initially reformed the abbey after the model of St. Emmeram, which had adopted the reforms of Gorze Abbey; after 1076, however, Hirsau came under the influ…
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