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Syria: Museums

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin)
Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin) [German version] A. Overview/Organization (CT) The museums of Syria (S.) are under the general management of the Syrian Department of Antiquities and Museums, which is based on the premises of the National Museum of Damascus and is an office within the Ministry of Culture. Consistent with the centralized structure of the state, this department has since 1919 had the task of preserving and managing archaeological monuments and museum objects from all periods of Syrian cultural his…

Commagene

(844 words)

Author(s): Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin)
[German version] (Κομμαγηνή; Kommagēnḗ). Region between the west bank of the  Euphrates [2] and the south-eastern slopes of the  Taurus, in south-eastern Turkey, approximately to be identified with the Turkish province of Adıyaman. The Taurus to the north separates it from the province of Malatya; to the west and the south there is a gradual transition to the provinces of Maraş and Gaziantep as far as the region of Jerablus ( Karkemiš) on the border with Syria. In recent decades the landscape has b…

Habur

(515 words)

Author(s): Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin)
[German version] (Akkadian Ḫābūr, Greek Χαβώρας/ Chabṓras; not identical with Araxes [1. 43]). Largest tributary in north-eastern Syria of the  Euphrates, on the lefthand side. Fed by karst springs that come to the surface in 13 basins near Rās al-Ain (Rēšainā). Initially the H. runs south-east to Hassaka (upper reaches), and is then diverted to the south by the Kaukab volcano (lower reaches); the mouth is close to the town of Buṣaira (Circesium). The H. catchment area (‘H. triangle’) drains the so…

Šēḫ Ḥamad, Tall

(85 words)

Author(s): Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin)
[German version] 70 km nw der syrischen Bezirkshauptstadt Dair az-Zaur am Ostufer des al-Ḫābūr in der syrischen Steppe (35°37'N, 40°45'O) gelegene Stadt. In mittel- und neuassyrischer Zeit (1300-612 v. Chr.) gleichzusetzen mit dem Prov.- und Verwaltungszentrum Dūr-Katlimmu; im 7. Jh. v. Chr. aram. {{Aramaic}} Zweitname Magdalu, der in hell.-parthisch-röm. Zeit (3. Jh. v. Chr. - 3. Jh. n. Chr.) zu Magdala abgewandelt wird. Magdala (Nachträge) Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kühne (ed.), Die rezente Umwelt von Tall Šēḫ Ḥamad, 1991 Id., A. Luther, Tall Šēḫ Ḥ…

Magdala

(650 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Harbour town on the north-western bank of Lake Genezareth (Greek Μαγδαλά; Magdalá < Hebrew Migdal Numayyā, ‘Tower’, Arabic al-Maǧdal). Harbour town on the north-western bank of Lake Genezareth, also known as Taricheai because of the production of saltwater fish there. Founded in the Hasmonean period ( Hasmoneans), Hellenized M. developed into one of the largest cities of Galilaea with a hippodrome and a stadium. Under emperor Nero, M. was annexed to the kingdom of Herod II Agrippa ( Iulius [II 5]). During th…