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Batanaea

(319 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] High plain, bordered to the west by the Golan Mountains (Γαυλανῖτις), to the north-west by Mount Hermon, to the north-east by the basalt desert of Laǧā (Τραχωνῖτις), to the south-east by the Ḥaurān Mountains (Αὐρανῖτις), and to the south by the river Yarmuk (Hieromykes) and its tributary wadis, thus occupying the same area as today's Nuqra. The name goes back to OT Bāšān (therefore Greek Βασάν; Basán and Βασανῖτις; Basanîtis). The dissolution of the Seleucid government in Syria and Palestine in the late 2nd cent. BC briefly brought B. under Nabataea…

Iambia

(115 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰαμβία κώμη; Iambía kṓmē). Port town on the western coast of the Arabian peninsula, according to Ptolemy belonging to the territory of the Arsae (Ἄρσαι, Ptol. 6,7,3). I. is probably also identical with the island of Iambe, which, according to Plin. HN 6,168, lies off Berenice but is otherwise unknown. While the history of I. during the Hellenistic and Roman-Byzantine periods is largely unknown, the town achieved some importance under the Arab name of Yanbuʿ al-baḥr as the port of Medina (Ἰάθριππα; láthrippa/Yaṯrib), especially for pilgrim traffic. …

Capernaum

(472 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] City in  Galilaea on the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee ( Tiberias). The Greek designation Καφαρναούμ ( Kapharnaoúm), in the NT in some variants also Καπερναούμ ( Kapernaoúm Mk 1,21), is derived from the Hebrew Kefar Naḥūm (village of Naḥūm) which appears in a Byzantine inscription found in the synagogue of Ḥammaṯ-Gāder. In later Jewish tradition, the name was changed to Kefar Tanḥūm or simply Tanḥūm, which in turn gave rise to the current Arab name Talḥūm (but not Tall Ḥūm as a derivation of Tall Naḥūm). Even though C. was inhabited from the 3rd millennium B…

Beth Shearim

(159 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Place in Lower Galilee. With the relocation of the patriarch Jehuda ha-Nasi (from c. AD 175-217) B., as seat of the Sanhedrin and the rabbinic school, became for a short while the centre of Palestinian Judaism but gradually declined in importance after the transfer to Tiberias of the patriarchate and its institutions around the middle of the 3rd cent. In the succession to Rabbi Jehuda B. developed into the most important burial site in Palestine in the 3rd and 4th cents., as attested by the sp…

Amida

(141 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Xenophon | Asia Minor | Limes (Arab. Āmid, mod. Diyarbakır). Though virtually undocumented between the Hellenistic period and its fortification by Constantius II [1. 323; 2. 136 f.], A. subsequently achieved military and economic significance as a frontier town [3. 220 f., 240] and became a centre of Syrian monasticism in the 5th cent. However, after a short Sassanid occupation (503-506) it suffered from border warfare and J…

Malatha

(193 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Μάλαθα; Málatha, Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,147; Moleatha, Not. Dign. Or. 34,45), modern Arabic Tall al-Milḥ (‘salt hill) or Hebrew Tel Malḥatā; settlement situated in the centre of the Beeršeba Basin in north-eastern Negev at the confluence of two Wadis. Because of the wealth of wells in the erea, a major fortified settlement was already established in the Middle Bronze Age, part of a southern defence line. Destroyed by the Egyptians and obviously restored in the 10th cent. BC under Solomon, M…

Galilaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Most northern region of  Palaestina. Under Ptolemaic rule ( Ptolemaeus) after the death of  Alexander [4] the Great, together with all of Palestine, G. became a Seleucid territory at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Urbanization, and the  Hellenization that came along with it, resulted in an antagonism between the Hellenized cities and the Judaism in rural G. In 164 BC, in the context of the Maccabaean ( Judas Maccabaeus) rebellion against the Seleucids and the Hellenistic citie…

Emmaus

(216 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] [1] City situated at c. 30 km distance to Jerusalem (Ἐμμαοῦς; Emmaoûs, Arabic Amwās). City situated c. 30 km north-west of Jerusalem. In 166/5 BC  Judas Maccabeus defeated the  Seleucids at E.. In the Jewish War  Vespasian stationed the 5th Legion there. Re-founded at the start of the 3rd cent. AD at the time of Iulius Africanus, E. was given the name Nicopolis. From the 4th cent. to the period of the Crusades E. was considered to be the place where the resurrected Jesus appeared to two disciples (Lk 24, 13). Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) [German version] [2] Settlement sit…

Lydda

(364 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Christianity | Hasmonaeans | Pilgrimage (Λύδδα/ Lýdda, Hellenized form of Hebrew Lod, derived from it Arab. Ludd). City in Palestine, south-east of Jaffa ( Ioppe) on the edge of the coastal plain on the road to Jerusalem. L. is first mentioned in the list of Palestinian cities conquered by Thutmosis III in the 15th cent. BC. The founding of L., which is ascribed to the tribe of Benjamin in 1 Chr 8:12, possibly goes back to the resettlement of the city in…

Adoulis

(88 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with Situated on the Arabian Gulf, A. was for a long time the only port town in the Axum kingdom. The export of high quality ivory ran through A., while textiles and metal goods were imported from Egypt and India (Peripl. M. Eryth. §§ 4 and 6). A. later became a Christian town, but appears to have been destroyed in the 7th/8th cents. Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography E. Littmann, s. v. Adule, RE Suppl. 7, 1 f.

Gophna

(92 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Town c. 22 km north of Jerusalem on the Roman trade route to Neapolis, the modern Arabic Ǧifnā. At the time of  Herod, G. was the chief town of one of the eleven Jewish toparchies. In 44 BC,  Cassius sold the inhabitants of G. into slavery because they were not able to raise the tribute demanded. Mark Antony rescinded this measure shortly thereafter. Vespasian conquered the city in AD 69 during the course of the First Jewish War. Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography M. Avi-Yonah, E. Orni, s.v. Gofnah, Encyclopaedia Judaica 7, 691.

Galilaea

(392 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[English version] Nördlichste Landschaft Palaestinas. Nach dem Tod Alexandros' [4] d.Gr. unter der Herrschaft der Ptolemäer (Ptolemaios) stehend, kam G. Anf. des 2. Jh. v.Chr. zusammen mit ganz Palaestina in seleukidischen Besitz. Urbanisierung und eine damit verbundene Hellenisierung führten zu Antagonismus zw. den hellenisierten Städten und dem Judentum im ländlichen G. 164 v.Chr. wurde die jüd. Bevölkerung im Rahmen des gegen die Seleukiden und die hell. Städte geführten Aufstandes der Makkabäe…

Adulis

(76 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Indienhandel Am arab. Golf gelegen, war A. lange die einzige Hafenstadt des Königreiches Axum. Über A. lief der Export von hochwertigem Elfenbein, eingeführt wurden u. a. Textilien und Metallwaren aus Ägypten und Indien (peripl. m. Eryth. §§ 4 und 6). Später eine christl. Stadt, scheint A. im 7./8. Jh. zerstört worden zu sein. Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography E. Littmann, s. v. Adule, RE Suppl. 7, 1 f.

Magdala

(274 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[English version] (griech. Μαγδαλά < hebr. Migdal Numayyā, “Turm”, arab. al-Maǧdal). Hafenstadt am NW-Ufer des Sees Genezareth, nach der dortigen Produktion von Salzfisch auch als Taricheai bekannt. In hasmonäischer Zeit (Hasmonäer) gegr., entwickelte sich das hellenisierte M. zu einer der größten Städte Galilaeas mit Hippodrom und Stadion. Unter Kaiser Nero wurde M. dem Reich Herodes' II. Agrippa (Iulius [II 5]) angegliedert. Während des ersten Jüd. Krieges war die Stadt ein Zentrum des Widerstandes und wurde 67 n.Chr.…

Herodias

(128 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[English version] Tochter des Aristobulos [4], eines Sohnes Herodes' d.Gr. In erster Ehe mit dessen Halbbruder Herodes Philippos verheiratet, verließ H. ihren Mann, um die Ehe mit Herodes Antipas, dem Tetrarchen Galilaeas und Peraeas, einzugehen, der sich seinerseits von seiner Frau, einer Tochter des Nabatäerkönigs Aretas, scheiden ließ. Dies führte zu einem Krieg mit dem Nabatäerreich, der mit der Niederlage des Antipas 36 n.Chr. endete. Anteil dürfte H. auch an der Hinrichtung Iohannes des Täuf…

Beth Schearim

(146 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[English version] Ort in Untergalilaea. Mit der Umsiedlung des Patriarchen Jehuda ha-Nasi (ab ca. 175-217 n.Chr.) wurde B. als Sitz des Sanhedrin und der rabbinischen Schule für kurze Zeit Zentrum des palästin. Judentums, verlor allerdings nach der Verlegung des Patriarchats und seiner Institutionen nach Tiberias um die Mitte des 3.Jh. allmählich an Bedeutung. In Nachfolge des Rabbi Jehuda entwickelte sich B. im 3. und 4.Jh. zur wichtigsten jüd. Begräbnisstätte Palaestinas, wovon die prachtvollen …

Iambia

(100 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἰαμβία κώμη). Hafenstadt an der Westküste der arab. Halbinsel, nach Ptolemaios zum Gebiet der Arsai (Ἄρσαι, Ptol. 6,7,3) gehörig. Ebenso dürfte I. mit der nach Plin. nat. 6,168 vor Berenike gelegenen und sonst unbekannten Insel Iambe gemeint sein. Während die Gesch. von I. in hell. und röm.-byz. Zeit weitgehend unbekannt ist, erlangte der Ort unter dem arab. Namen Yanbu al-baḥr als Hafen für Medina (Ἰάθριππα/Yaṯrib) v.a. für den Pilgerverkehr einige Bed. Berenike [9]; Erythra thalatta; Yaṯrı̄b Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography J. Tkač, s.v. I., RE …

Sychem

(283 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Hebrew šḵæm; Συχεμ, cf. Gn 12:6, Latin Sychem). City in Samaria c. 2 km to the southeast of Nāblus between the mountains of Ebal and Garizim on the hill of Tall Balāṭa and today partly covered by an Arab village called Balāṭa. S. acquired strategic and economic significance because of its location at a central junction in the road network of Samaria. Settled by 3500 BC, S. was attacked and destroyed by Egypt several times in the 2nd millennium. After the death of Solomon [1], the elect…

Sepphoris

(393 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Σέπφωρις/ Sépphōris, cf. Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,5,9 et passim) a city in Galilaea, on the east-west link between Ptolemais [8] (Akko) and Tiberias. Settled by the Iron Age, S. was heavily fortified under Alexander [16] Iannaeus c. 100 BC. Presumably,  S. was the most important city of Galilaea even before the institution of one of the five synhedria as the government of Judaea by the Roman governor Gabinius [I 2] in 57 BC. In 37 BC it fell to Herodes [1]. After his death in 4 BC there was unrest, which was suppressed by…

Nazareth

(142 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Ναζαρέθ; Nazaréth). Town in southern Galilaea. Settled from the late 3rd millennium BC, the village of N. is first mentioned in the NT as the place of Jesus' youth before he emerged into public life (e.g. Mt 2,23; Mk 1,9; Lk 2,4 el passim). The town, Jewish into the 4th/5th cents., became a destination of Christian pilgrimage from the end of the 4th cent. In the 5th cent., a church was built on the site of the Annunciation to Mary Maria [II 1]; (cf. Lk 1,26-38). The Christian community survived the Arabic conquest of AD 636. Jesus Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography B. Ba…
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