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Holy War

(351 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
The concept of the holy war is customarily associated with the thought of a war whose basis or justification is religious in a special way. The connection between ‘holy war’ and ‘holy struggle’ was coined by poets of the time of the wars of liberation against Napoleon, especially Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769–1860). The fact that, after the Enlightenment and the Revolution of 1789, war is presented as holy, rests not on the fact that it was (only) then that the church appealed to war, but on the fact that…

Specialists, Religious

(1,822 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
1. a) The concept of religious specialist can denote the results of a permanent division of labor within a religion. The individual members of a religious → group possess distinct competencies when it comes to practicing religion and its acts. In many religions, those who lead religious acts are those who occupy a leading position of honor and power, such as the chiefs of an enterprise, or of the state. But religious specialists can be spoken of meaningfully only where a specific competency in r…

Calendar

(1,306 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
Lunar/Solar Year 1. A calendar presents a system for ordering time by dividing a unit, the year, into a framework whose smallest components are days. This system coordinates a society's social, economic, and religious activities. Objectification and communication are served through ‘natural’ rhythms, impressive meteorological phenomena (seasons), the world of plants and animals, and, frequently, the phases of the visibility of the moon (‘lunation,’ ‘month’). A year built by lunar months (12 × 29.5…

War/Armed Forces

(1,349 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
War as a Social Institution 1. Definition: War is an organized carrying out of a → conflict between or among groups equipped with deadly weapons. Unlike the individual exercise of violence, war is therefore a societal institution that permits, indeed legally prescribes, the killing of other persons. Depending on the respective degree of organization and complexity of the societies involved, the profile of war can differ greatly. War presupposes the existence of at least a rudimentary military force an…

Time

(3,168 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
A Primary Category 1. Like space, time belongs to the primary categories of human perception and human construction of the world. There is no priority between the two. Time is repeatedly described in metaphors of space (length of time, axis of time), concrete space, at the same time by movements, and therefore by time (three-day trip, or three light-years away). Time appears as a fixed property of the world—unchangeable, encompassing, and subjecting everything to temporalization. Acts and events ca…

Passennus Paulus Propertius Blaesus, C.

(100 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[English version] (Namensform nach CIL 11,5405, aus Assisi). Röm. Elegiker und Lyriker des späten 1. Jh.n.Chr. Bekannt ist er nur aus den Briefen des jüngeren Plinius [2] (Plin. epist. 6,15,1; 9,22,1f.), der ihn als Elegiker und Lyriker sehr schätzt und ihn als Ritter und Nachkommen des Elegikers Propertius bezeichnet. Die Freundschaft mit Plinius und mit dem Rechtsgelehrten und Consul des Jahres 86 L. Iavolenus Priscus weist auf seine Stellung in der röm. Ges. Gedichte sind nicht erh., sie sollen sich eng an Propertius bzw. Horatius [7] angeschlossen haben (Plin. l.c.). PIR2 P 141. R…

Religion

(12,041 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Einleitung [English version] A. Bestimmung des Begriffs Als substantivistischer Terminus der rel. Selbstbeschreibung bezeichnet “R.” ein System von gemeinsamen Praktiken, individuellen Glaubensvorstellungen, kodifizierten Normen und theologischen Erklärungsmustern, dessen Gültigkeit zumeist auf ein autoritatives Prinzip oder Wesen zurückgeführt wird. Für die R.-Wissenschaft ist der R.-Begriff dagegen eine rein heuristische Kategorie, mit der jene Praktiken, Vorstellungen, Normen und theologischen Kon…

Curiatius

(137 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
[English version] [1] C. Maternus Redner und Komödiendichter Röm. Redner und Tragödiendichter, der allein aus Tacitus' Dialogus bekannt ist, in dem er als Gastgeber am Tag nach der Rezitation seiner Trag. Cato auftritt. Weiterhin werden ihm von Tacitus (dial. 2 f.; 9-11) die Trag. Thyestes, Medea, Domitius (3,4) sowie wohl ein Agamemnon (9,2) zugerechnet. Während Tacitus (etwa 76 n. Chr.) den Gegensatz von Dichtung über große Männer und eingeschränkter öffentlicher Rede in C. als Dichter personalisiert, berichtet Cass. Dio 67,12,5 über die Hinr…

Ephemeris

(98 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[English version] (ἐφημερίς, Pl. Ephemerides). Ein Tagebuch für persönliche Aufzeichnungen, als Amts- oder Rechnungsjournal. Der geläufige Begriff für solche Aufzeichnungen ist hypomnēma(ta) , lat. commentarii oder acta . Als Titel auch lit. tradierter bzw. benutzter Werke findet sich e. für das von dem Alexanderhistoriker Ptolemaios I. benutzte “Kriegstagebuch” Alexandros' [4] d. Gr. (FGrH 117) und die fiktive E. toú Troikoú polémou, das Tagebuch über den Troianischen Krieg des (fiktiven) Dictys Cretensis. Plutarch (Caes. 22) bezeichnet Caesars commentarii als e.; Tagebu…

Fuscus, Arellius

(189 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Rhetor in the Augustan period; came from Asia (Sen. Controv. 9,6,16). In the twenties BC, at the latest, he probably taught in Rome, more often in Greek than in Latin (Sen. Suas. 4,5). Amongst his outstanding students were  Papirius Fabianus (who later turned away again from F.'s style) and Ovid; close contact with the imperial house is shown by F.'s homage to Maecenas (through the frequent quoting of Vergil's verses, Sen. Suas. 3,5) and probably also by the fact that Seneca menti…

Curiatius

(297 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Italian surname (Schulze, 355); according to Roman legend, Rome's war against Alba Longa under King Tullus Hostilius was decided through the fight between the triplet Curiatii brothers of Alba and the triplet Horatii brothers ( Horatius) of Rome, with the former being killed (Liv. 1,24f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,16-20). After the destruction of Alba, the family is said to have moved to Rome and to have been included among the Patricians (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The consul recorded in the fasti for 453 BC, member of the 1st collegium of the decemvirs for the d…

Varius

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from Varus. Name-bearers first attested in the 1st cent. BC, but only in the Imperial period did they attain any prominence. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Cotyla, L. Aedile in 48, 47 or 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 13,26), emissary at Rome for M. Antonius [I 9] in 43, and his legate in Gallia transalpina (Cic. Phil. 5,5-7; 8,24-32; Plut. Antonius 18,8). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Rufus, L. Roman poet, c. 70-15 BC Renowned Roman poet (Hor. Ars P. 55) of the Augustan period (c. 70-15 BC). Wi…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Calendar

(4,567 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Freydank, Helmut (Potsdam)
A. Basic Principles [German version] 1. Term Calendar developed its modern meaning in post-antiquity from the Latin word for ‘debt register’ (  Calendarium ). In the following, the term is taken as an element of  chronography within a culture which attempts to describe or regulate annual periodicities. Typically, a day represents the smallest unit of a calendar ( Clocks). Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) [German version] 2. Social Construction of Time Hunting and farming both demand a harmonization with seasonal variations ( Seasons), thus leading to annually repeated patte…

Commentarii

(747 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Continuous records (  acta ) in the nature of minutes, documenting the activities of official bodies and their agents (magistrates, collegia, city councils), but also perhaps commercial enterprises, i.e. large private households (Cic. Att. 7,3,7); but the term is not attested for actual balance sheets. The interests involved, and therefore the content (down to the private ‘notebook’, Cic. De or. 1,208), level of standardization and publication of records can vary greatly. Characteristic of the commentarius, as an individual record is that it is almost a…

Fufius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a plebeian family [1], perhaps from Cales, politically active from the 3rd cent. BC. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in the mid-2nd cent. BC People's tribune (?) in the mid-2nd cent. BC, otherwise unknown author of a lex Fufia on the fixing of permissible days for public assemblies (usually mentioned together with the lex Aelia,  Aelius [I 1]). MRR 1,452f.; 3,3f. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] F., L. Rom. orator in the 1st cent. BC Known as an orator in the 90s of the 1st cent. BC. Around 97 his speech in the prosecu…

Lunaria

(160 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A Latin textual genre attested by numerous mediaeval MSS. Lunaria provide compilations of prescriptions and prognoses for all the days of a lunar month. In content they follow ancient astrological rules (Cato Agr.; Verg. G.; Plin. HN), but the tradition can not be reconstructed without a discontinuity [2. 18]. They correspond to the selenodromia of Greek literature, which certainly do trace back to the ancient prognostica [3; 4]. In this form the lunaria can be classified into the (mostly astrologically based) hemerological calendars, which range from…

Religion

(13,714 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Introduction [German version] A. Definition of the concept 'Religion', the substantive for describing the religious, denotes a system of common practices, individual ideas about faith, codified norms and examples of theological exegesis whose validity is derived chiefly from an authoritative principle or being. For the academic study of religion, conversely, the word is a purely heuristic category in which those practices, ideas, norms and theological constructs are examined historically; however, the…

Ephemeris

(109 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (ἐφημερίς; ephēmerís, pl. ephēmerídes). A diary for personal notes, as office or accounts journal. The common term for such notes is   hypomnḗma(ta) , Lat.   commentarii or   acta . Ephemeris is found as the title of literary works that have been passed down or used, i.a. for the ‘war journal’ of  Alexander [4] the Great used by the historian  Ptolemy I (FGrH 117) and the fictitious Ephemerìs toû Troikoû polémou, the Trojan War diary from the (fictitious)  Dictys Cretensis. Plutarch (Caes. 22) describes Caesar's commentarii as ephemeris; however, in the  Corpus Caesa…

Calendar

(3,617 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) [German version] A. Traditions (CT) Of the many calendar systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity only the Jewish and the Julian Calendars survived in use beyond the late classical period. For many other systems, such as the Gaulish calendar, or that of Coligny, or the conventional lunisolar calendar of the Eastern Mediterranean, there are clear breaks in the tradition after the 4th cent. AD. The Julian Calendar, the system adopted by the Roman administration, was taken over by the Chri…
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