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Patriarch/Patriarchate

(2,399 words)

Author(s): Ritter, Adolf Martin | Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Early Church The title patriarch appears to have been first used by early Judaism (I), with reference to the both the ancestral biblical figures ( 4. Macc. 7.19; 16.25; T. 12 Patr.; Ber. 16b) and the religious leaders of the Romans’ Jewish subjects (Heb. nasi ), throughout the history of that central religious office. The first such patriarch was probably Judah ha-Nasi, during the Severan dynasty (193–235); Cod. Theod. XVI 8.29 (May 30, 429) records the excessus (“termination”) of the Jewish patriarchate. In Christianity, the Montanists (Montanism; cf. Jerome, Ep. 4…

Vows

(2,357 words)

Author(s): Lorenz, Günther | Görg, Manfred | Avemarie, Friedrich | Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona | Bader, Günter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Voluntary promises to do something, either materia…

Privileged Altar

(191 words)

Author(s): Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona
[German Version] The legally important altar privilege, established in the 16th century by Pope Gregory XIII, which conceded to popes, bishops, and priests certain prerogatives in celebrating the sacrament of the Eucharist, has completely disappeared in the current liturgical law of the Catholic Church. By current law, not only popes, but all bishops can celebrate at the high altars of the papal patriarchal basilicas (modification by Apostolic Letter Peculiare ius: AAS 58, 1966, 119–122). The right of priests to grant a plenary indulgence to a deceased person has…

Congregations

(248 words)

Author(s): Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona
[German Version] (Catholic Church). Among the departments of the Roman Curia, the congregations are on an equal legal footing with the Secretariat of State, papal tribunals, councils, offices, and other dicasteria. They exercise a pastoral ministry by supporting and representing the pope in the performance of his duties as supreme pastor and in the exercise of his sovereign juridical leadership over the universal church (cf. CIC/1983, c. 360). Nine dicasteria are expressly designated as congregations: the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, for the Oriental Churches, for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, for the Causes of Saints, for Bishops, for the Evangelization of Peoples, for the Clergy, for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, and for Catholic Education. Each is headed by a cardinal prefect appointed by the pope. Other curial offices can also be placed under the supervision of a cardinal, unless under the charge of an archbishop acting as president. Apart from the cardinal prefect, each congregation comprises (arch-)bishops on a five-year appointment as members, a secretary and other senior officia…

Patriarch/Patriarchat

(2,180 words)

Author(s): Ritter, Adolf Martin | Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona | Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] I. Alte Kirche Der Titel Patriarch (P.) ist anscheinend zuerst vom antiken Judentum (: I.) verwendet worden, und zwar für die bibl. »Ur«- oder »Stammväter« (vgl.4Makk 7,19; 16,25; TestXII; Ber 16b) sowie für das rel. Oberhaupt (hebr.: Nasi) der jüd. Untertanen der Römer, seit und solange es dieses zentrale Leitungsamt gab (erster P. wohl Jehuda ha-Nasi, zur Zeit der Severischen Dynastie [193–235]; in Cod.Theod. XVI 8,29 [30.5.429] wird dann der excessus [das »Erlöschen«] des jüd. Pa…

Privilegierter Altar

(176 words)

Author(s): Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona
[English Version] . Das rechtlich bedeutsame, durch Papst  Gregor XIII. im 16.Jh. begründete Altarprivileg, das Päpsten, Bischöfen oder Priestern bestimmte Vorrechte bei der Feier des Sakramentes der Eucharistie einräumte, ist im geltenden liturgischen Recht der kath. Kirche gänzlich entfallen. Demzufolge können nicht nur Päpste, sondern alle Bischöfe an den Hauptaltären der päpstlichen Patriarchalbasiliken zelebrieren (Änderung durch Apostolisches Schreiben »Peculiare ius«: AAS 58, 1966, 119–122). Das Recht für Priester, an einem P.A. einen vollkommenen Ablaß einem Verstorbenen zuzuwenden, wurde aufgehoben (Apostolische Konstitution »Indulgentiarum doctrina«: AAS 59, 1967, 5–24) wie ebenso auch das Vorrecht, an P.A. eine bestimmte Votivmesse feiern zu können (Allg. Einführung in das Meßbuch, 1969). Das Privileg zur Zelebration an tragbaren Altären ist dadurch entfallen, daß nun nach dem geltenden universalkirchl. Recht die Eucharistie auch an einem nichtgeweihten Tisch gefeiert werden kann (c.932 @ 2 CIC/1983…