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Gotarzes II.

(429 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[English version] Nach dem nicht vor 39 n.Chr. erfolgten Tod des Königs Artabanos [5] II. wurde das Partherreich durch Thronkämpfe erschüttert, die die gesamte Regierungszeit seines Nachfolgers G. ausfüllten. Dessen Verwandtschaft zu seinem Vorgänger wie zu den Arsakiden überhaupt ist unklar: Während er den lit. Quellen gewöhnlich als Sohn des Artabanos gilt (Tac. ann. 11,8f.; Ios. ant. Iud. 20,3,4), lassen verschiedene Indizien darauf schließen, daß er nur Pflegesohn des früheren Königs war und e…

Boran

(44 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[English version] Sasanidische Königin, Tochter Chosroes' II. und möglicherweise Schwestergemahlin Cavades' II. Sie kam nach der Beseitigung des Usurpators Sharwaraz im Frühjahr 630 an die Macht und regierte bis Herbst 631 (PLRE 3A, 246). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M.-L. Chaumont, s.v. Bôrân, EncIr 4, 366.

Arsakes

(338 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[English version] [1] A. I. Gründer und König des Partherreiches (247-217 v. Chr.) ungewisser Herkunft; unter seiner Führung brachen die Parner um 250 v.Chr. in die Astauene ein. Die Wirren im Osten des Seleukidenreiches ermöglichten es A., der sich 247 in Asaak krönen ließ, um 238 Parthien und bald danach Hyrkanien zu erobern. Trotz eines Gegenangriffs Seleukos' II. konnte A. Parthien und Hyrkanien behaupten und bei seinem Tod (217) ein gefestigtes Staatswesen hinterlassen. Er war der Gründer des Partherreiches und der Stammvater der Arsakiden. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) …

Orophernes

(162 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[English version] [1] Angehöriger des kappadokischen Königshauses, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Bruder Ariarathes' I. von Kappadokien, half Artaxerxes [3] III. bei den äg. Feldzügen. Sein Bruder adoptierte seinen Sohn Ariarathes II. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [English version] [2] Mitglied des kappadokischen Königshauses, 2. Jh. v. Chr. (in den Hss. auch Olophernes). Sohn Ariarathes' IV. von Kappadokien und der Antiochis, angeblich von der zunächst kinderlosen Königin untergeschoben. Da diese ihrem jüngeren Sohn Mithradates (= Ariarathes V.) die Krone v…

Hephthalitai

(218 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[English version] Nach der Einteilung R. Göbls ([1], vgl. [2]) erlebte Iran seit dem 4. Jh. n.Chr. vier aufeinanderfolgende “Wellen” von Einbrüchen hunnischer Völker. Während die ersten drei Gruppen dieser “iranischen Hunnen” (Kidariten, Alchon, Nezak) in den lit. Quellen wenig Spuren hinterlassen haben, gehörten die H. im 5./6. Jh. n.Chr. zu den prominentesten und gefährlichsten östl. Nachbarn der Perser. Sie sind erstmals für die Zeit des Königs Peroz ausdrücklich bezeugt und werden von Prokopios (BP 1,3) anschaulich beschrieben. Nach seinem Zeugnis waren die Ephthalitai e…

Abgar

(188 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
Name mehrerer Könige von Osrhoëne in der Zeit von 94 v. Chr. bis 244 n. Chr. Hervorzuheben sind: [English version] [1] II. Ariamnes bar Abgar (68-53 v. Chr.) A. II. Ariamnes bar Abgar, regierte 68-53 v. Chr. Er wurde von den Römern bezichtigt, die Katastrophe des Crassus verschuldet zu haben. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [English version] [2] V. Ukhama (der Schwarze) (4 v.-50 n. Chr.) A. V. Ukkāmā (der Schwarze), 4 v. - 7. n. Chr. und 13-50; spielte 49/50 eine zweifelhafte Rolle im parthischen Thronstreit zw. Gotarzes II. und Meherdates. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [English version] [3] …

Abdissares

(81 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[English version] Ein von Münzen her bekannter König Armeniens, dem der zwölfte Sockel der väterlichen Ahnenreihe Antiochos' [16] I. von Kommagene zugewiesen werden dürfte. Er wäre dann der Sohn des Arsames und Vater des Xerxes von Armenien sowie der Herrscher, der sich zu Tributzahlungen an Antiochos [5] III. verpflichtete (Pol. 8,25). Seine Regierungszeit mag in das Jahrzehnt vor 215 v. Chr. fallen. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Schottky, Media Atropatene und Groß-Armenien, 1989  M.-L. Chaumont, in: Gnomon 67, 1995, 330-336.

Tamsapor

(66 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Commander of Sapor [2] II, entrusted with the defence of the Persian western frontier. He spoke in favour of peace negotiations with Rome in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,9,3 f.; 17,5). When the Persian War flared up again in 359, T. and Nohodares successfully led small, highly manoeuvrable divisions against the Romans (Amm. Marc. 18,8,3; 19,9,7; cf. Them. Or. 4,57). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Orodes

(580 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ὀρώδης; Orṓdēs). [German version] [1] O. I Parthian king, 1st cent. BC Parthian king around 81/80-76/5 BC who is mentioned under the name Uruda only in cuneiform texts [1. 517, 1162f., 1165, 1170f., 1174, 1446]. He was probably a son of Artabanus [4] I and therefore a brother of the kings Mithridates [13] II and Gotarzes I who ruled before him and Sanatruces who ruled after him. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography 1 T.G. Pinches, J.N. Strassmaier, A. J. Sachs, Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts, 1955. J. Oelsner, Randbemerkungen zur arsakidischen Geschichte …

Zarbienus

(60 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαρβιηνός /Zarbiēnós). A king of Corduene (Gordyaea), who negotiated with Appius Claudius [I 24] Pulcher in 71/70 BC over an alliance with Licinius [I 26] Lucullus, and was betrayed to his overlord Tigranes [2] II of Armenia, who disposed of him. Lucullus gave him a magnificent burial in 69 and confiscated his treasures (Plut. Lucullus 21; 29). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Cylaces

(95 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] More correctly perhaps Gylakes (Armenian Głak), Armenian eunuch and ‘head gentleman-in-waiting’ ( Hajr mardpet). After C. had temporarily changed over to the Persian side, he attempted from AD 368 onwards, together with the ‘regent’ ( hazarapet)  Artabannes [1], to protect the interests of young king  Pap and to limit the power of the higher nobility and the Church. Around 370 Sapor II induced Pap, through secret messages, to murder his ministers and to have their heads sent to him (Amm. Marc. 27,12; 30,1,3). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography J. Markwart, S…

Parthian and Persian wars

(1,319 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
The term 'Parthian and Persian wars' refers to the wars which the Romans initially fought against the Parthians (see A an B below) and subsequently against their successors, the Persian dynasty of the Sassanids (see C and D). [German version] A. Up to the end of the Roman republic The diplomatic relations between Romans and Parthians, begun under L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, had gradually deteriorated. Nevertheless, the invasion into the Parthian kingdom in 54 BC, headed by the triumvir M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus, took place without any provocat…

Vahram

(501 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Vararanes). [German version] [1] V. I Son of Sapor [1] I, Persian Great King AD 273-276. The capture and death of Mani take place in his time. PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] V. II Son of V. [1], Persian Great King 276-293. V. had to go to battle with Carus [3] in 283, who was advancing on Ctesiphon. The sudden death of the Emperor and the retreat of the Romans gave the King room to breathe. PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography A. Sh. Shabazi, s. v. Bahrâm I-II, EncIr 3, 515-517. [German version] [3] V. III Son of V. [2], overthrown after his …

Witiza

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] In AD 694/5, W. became co-regent of his father, the Visigoth king Egica, who had become senile and died in 702. Information about his sole reign is difficult to obtain. The acts of the 18th Council of Toledo ( c. 703) are lost; medieval historiography (beginning with the Chronicon Moissacense, 9th cent.) primarily describes the alleged (particularly moral) misconduct of the last but one Visigoth king. This was apparently supposed to explain the swift collapse of the kingdom, which W.'s successor Rodericus was scarcely…

Boran

(46 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Sassanid queen, daughter of  Chosroes II and possibly the sister-bride of  Cavades II. She came to power in spring 630, after the usurper Sharwaraz was deposed, and ruled until autumn 631 (PLRE 3A, 246). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M.-L. Chaumont, s.v. Bôrân, EncIr 4, 366.

Gotarzes II

(518 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] After the death of King Artabanus II [5] which did not occur before AD 39, the empire of the Parthians was shaken by battles for the throne that filled the entire period of the reign of his successor G. His relationship to his predecessor and to the Arsacids is unclear: whilst he is usually regarded in the literary sources as the son of Artabanus (Tac. Ann. 11,8f.; Jos. Ant. Iud. 20,3,4), various pieces of circumstantial evidence lead us to conclude that he was only the foster-son…

Chosroes

(928 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Parthian king Parthian king; see  Osroes. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] C. King of Armenia, early 3rd cent. AD was most probably the name of the Arsacid king of Armenia who took part in the Parthian war of Septimius Severus, and in 214 or 216 was captured by Caracalla. His name was not given in the Greek sources, but mention of an ‘Armenian C.’ in an inscription at Egyptian Thebes (CIG 4821) may relate to him. The thesis of Armenian writers, frequently taken up by researchers, …

Radamistus

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ῥοδομίστος/ Rhodomístos). The son of the Iberian king Pharasmanes [1] I; in AD 51, with the collusion of his father and the acquiescence of the Romans, he toppled his uncle, brother-in-law and step-father Mithridates [20] from the Armenian throne. Despite governing cruelly, R. was unable to withstand the Parthian nominee Tiridates [5] I and had to retreat to Iberia [1] in 54. His pregnant wife Zenobia [1], whom R. initially dragged along on the escape and then wounded and threw in…

Izates

(182 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἰζάτης; Izátēs). [German version] [1] I. I. King of Adiabene until c. 30 AD King of  Adiabene until c. AD 30. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] I. II. Grandson of I. [1], king from approx. 36 AD Grandson of I. [1], king from c. AD 36. Some years later he took in his hard-pressed Parthian overlord Artabanus [5] II and organized the latter's return to the throne, for which he was rewarded with the territory of Nisibis and privileges. His fickle politics in the struggles for the succession after Artabanus' death can be most…

Hengist and Horsa

(229 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (‘stallion and steed’). The brothers H. and H., sons of the Jute (Danish) Wihtgil, were said to be the leaders of Anglo-Saxon warriors recruited by the southern British king Vortigern in AD 449 to help him repel the Scots and Picts. After a few years, a conflict developed between the Britons and their Germanic allies. In the battle of Aylesford (455) Horsa is said to have died on the Germanic side, and Vortigern's son Categirn, on the British. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Hengist founded the kingdom of Kent in the same year. Hengist and his son Oisc …
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