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Cornelia

(863 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] »Mutter der Gracchen« Jüngere Tochter des P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus und der Aemilia Tertia, * um 190 v.Chr.; ca. 176/5 heiratete sie Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. Von ihren 12 Kindern überlebten nur drei, Tiberius, Gaius und Sempronia, die frühe Kindheit. Bekannt ist C. als ‘Mutter der Gracchen’ (CIL VI 31610), mit deren Politik sie schon in der Ant. in Verbindung gebracht wurde [1. 108-120; 127; 2. 48-89]. Die Quellen vermitteln in teils popularer, teils optimatischer Tradition ein uneinh…

Atia

(217 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[English version] [1] Mutter des Augustus, Nichte Caesars Tochter des M. Attius Balbus aus Aricia und der Iulia, der Schwester Caesars. Aus ihrer Ehe mit C. Octavius gingen zwei Kinder hervor, Octavia minor und im J. 63 v.Chr. C. Octavius, der spätere Augustus (Suet. Aug. 4,1). Nach dem Tode ihres Ehemannes im J. 59/8 heiratete A.L.Marcius Philippus. Sie starb im J. 43/42, von Octavian mit einer öffentlichen Bestattung geehrt (Suet. Aug. 61,2; Cass. Dio 47,17,6). Tacitus (dial. 28,5) lobt A. wegen der hingebungsvollen Erziehung ihres Sohnes als Beispiel für den mos maiorum. Beim Kampf…

Livia

(844 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[English version] [1] Ab ca. 104 v. Chr. Gattin des Q. Servilius Caepio, dann des M. Porcius Cato Tochter des M. Livius [I 6] Drusus und einer Cornelia; Schwester des M. Livius [I 7] Drusus, seit ca. 104 v.Chr. Gattin des Q. Servilius Caepio und Mutter der Servilia (der späteren Mutter des M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus); nach dem Zerwürfnis des Ehemannes mit ihrem Bruder geschieden. Aus ihrer zweiten Ehe (seit ca. 98) mit M. Porcius Cato gingen M. Porcius Cato Uticensis und eine Tochter hervor. Sie starb etwa 92 (Plut. Cato min. 1,1; Val. Max. 3,1,2) Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) Bibliography Drumann/Gr…

Caecilia

(544 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[English version] [1] C. Gaia Frau des Tarquinius Priscus Frau des Tarquinius Priscus (Fest. p. 276); bei Plin. nat. 8,194 und Paul. Fest. s.v. G.C. p. 85 L. heißt sie Tanaquil (dazu [1]). Ihr Name verbindet sie mit der Göttin Gaia und damit mit Hochzeitsriten. Zur Verbindung mit dem ager Tarquiniorum vgl. Liv. 2,5; Dion. Hal. ant. 5,13,2-4, mit dem Flußgott Tiber [2. 378-83]. Zum Namen Caecilia [2. 382]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius, 1980, Index s.v. Tanaquil 2 A. Momigliano, Roma Arcaica, 1989, 371-83 (mit allen Quellen). …

Antonia

(738 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Hanslik, Rudolf (Wien) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[English version] [1] Erste Frau des M. Antonius [I 9] Tochter des C. Antonius Hybrida, Cousine und Gattin des M. Antonius [I 9], der sich um 47 v. Chr. unter dem Vorwand des Ehebruchs mit P. Cornelius Dolabella von ihr scheiden ließ (Cic. Phil. 2,99; Plut. Ant. 9,1-2). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [English version] [2] Tochter des M. Antonius [I 9], Frau des Pythodoros von Tralleis Tochter der A. [1] und des M. Antonius [I 9],  zw. 54 und 49 v. Chr. Bereits 44 mit dem Sohn des Triumvirn Aemilius Lepidus verlobt, verheiratete sie ihr Vater nach Auflösung dieser…

Iulia

(3,135 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[English version] [1] Tante des C. Iulius Caesar, Gattin des C. Marius, 2./1.Jh. v. Chr. Väterlicherseits Tante des C. Iulius Caesar, heiratete zwischen 115 und 109 v.Chr. C. Marius, mit dem sie einen Sohn namens C. Marius ( cos. 82) hatte (Plut. Marius 6,3; Plut. Caesar 1,1; Sall. hist. 1,35 Maur). Informationen über I.s Leben gibt es kaum. Anläßlich ihres Todes im J. 68 hielt Caesar eine großangelegte Leichenfeier ab (Suet. Iul. 6,1; Plut. Caesar 5,1). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [English version] [2] Tochter des L. Iulius [I 5] Caesar, Mutter des Triumvirn M. Antonius Tochter des L. Iuliu…

Caecilia

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] C. Gaia Wife of Tarquinius Priscus Wife of  Tarquinius Priscus (Fest. p. 276); in Plin. HN 8,194 and Paul. Fest. s.v. G.C. p. 85 L., her name is  Tanaquil (refer [1]). Her name links her to the goddess Gaia and thus with wedding rites. For the connection with the ager Tarquiniorum cf. Liv. 2,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,13,2-4, with the river god Tiber [2. 378-83]. For the name C. [2. 382]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius, 1980, Index s.v. Tanaquil 2 A. Momigliano, Roma Arcaica, 1989, 371-83 (with all sources). …

Messalina

(727 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Statilia M. Third wife of Nero Born between AD 30 and 40, daughter of T. Statilius Taurus ( cos. 44), married her fourth husband M. Atticus Vestinus (= M. Iulius [II 147] Vestinus Atticus, cos. 65) in 63/4. In 65, emperor Nero forced Vestinus to commit suicide so that he could take M. as his (third) wife in 66 (Tac. Ann. 15,68,3; Suet. Nero 35,1; IG IV 1402 and IV2 604: M. as Nero's wife). In the same year, she was installed as Augusta. As a widow, she was courted by Otho in 69 (Suet. Otho 10,2). M., who was deified during her lifetime (as noted in the Acts o…

Fulvia

(912 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Alleged mistress of Catilinarian Q. Curius From a noble family, friend and alleged mistress (perhaps because of defamatory accounts) of Catilinarian Q. Curius [3]. She informed Cicero of the conspiracy (Sall. Catil. 23,3-4; 26,3; 28,2). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] [2] Wife of Clodius Pulcher, then of C. Sempronius Curio ans finally of M. Antonius Daughter of M.  Fulvius [I 1] Bambalio and Sempronia, date of birth unknown, married until 52 BC to  Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, until 49 to C.  Scribonius Curio and then to Marcus…

Iulia

(3,365 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Aunt of C. Iulius Caesar, wife of C. Marius, 2nd/1st cent. BC Paternal aunt of C. Iulius  Caesar; between 115 and 109 BC, she married C. Marius, with whom she had a son named C. Marius ( cos. 82; Plut. Marius 6,3; Plut. Caesar 1,1; Sall. Hist. 1,35 Maur). There is almost no information regarding I.'s life. On the occasion of her death in 68, Caesar held a large funeral ceremony (Suet. Iul. 6,1; Plut. Caesar 5,1). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of L. Iunius [I 5] Caesar, mother of triumvir M. Antonius Daughter of L. Iulius [I 5] Caesar and Fulvia (d…

Livilla

(339 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Hanslik, Rudolf (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Livia Iulia Livilla in Suet. Tib. 62,1; Claud. 1,6; 3,2. Daughter of Nero Claudius [II 24] Drusus and Antonia [4] Minor. Her grandmother Livia [2] took her into her house after 9 BC. In 1 BC she was married to C. Iulius [II 32] Caesar (Zon. 10,36), after his death in AD 4 with Drusus [II 1], son of Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 4,40,4). When Drusus died in AD 23, L. established and deepened her involvement with Aelius [II 19] Seianus, who wanted to keep the sons of her rival Agrippina [2…

Atia

(227 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Mother of Augustus, niece of Caesar Daughter of M. Attius Balbus of Aricia and Iulia, Caesar's sister. Her marriage to C. Octavius produced two children, Octavia minor and in the year 63 BC C. Octavius, the later Augustus (Suet. Aug. 4,1). After the death of her husband in 59/8 she married L. Marcius Philippus. She died in 43/42, and was honoured by Octavian with a public burial (Suet. Aug. 61,2; Cass. Dio 47,17,6). Tacitus (Dial. 28,5) praises A. because of her devoted education of her son as an example for the mos maiorum. In Octavian's battle for power in the state…

Cornelia

(926 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Mother of the Gracchi Younger daughter of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus and Aemilia Tertia, b. c. 190 BC; c. 176/5 she married Tiberius  Sempronius Gracchus. Of her 12 children only three survived early childhood: Tiberius, Gaius and Sempronia. C. is known as ‘Mother of the Gracchi’ (CIL VI 31610), with whose politics she was already associated in antiquity [1. 108-120; 127; 2. 48-89]. In a partly popular, partly elite tradition, the sources give an uneven picture of C.'s views and influence. She…

Antonia

(772 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hanslik, Rudolf (Vienna) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] First spouse of M.  Antonius [I 9] Daughter of C. Antonius Hybrida, cousin and spouse of M.  Antonius [I 9], who divorced her in 47 BC under the pretext of adultery with P. Cornelius Dolabella (Cic. Phil. 2,99; Plut. Ant. 9,1-2). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of A. [1] and of M.  Antonius [I 9], wife of Pythodorus of Tralleis Daughter of A. [1] and of M.  Antonius [I 9],  between 54 and 49 BC; already 44 engaged to the son of the triumvir Aemilius Lepidus, after the disintegration of this political union her f…

Cleopatra

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα; Kleopátra, Lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, first wife of  Phineus. C. was rejected in favour of  Idaea [3], whom Phineus married as his second wife; her sons were blinded (Apollod. 3.200; Hyg. Fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Idas and Marpessa Daughter of  Idas and  Marpessa, wife of  Meleager. After her abduction by Apollo she was also called ‘Alcyone’ after her mother's …

Amalasuntha

(392 words)

Author(s): Lippold, A. (0) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] Amalaswintha, daughter of  Theoderic the Gr.; her father provided A. with a good education (cf. Cassiod. Var. 11,1,6 f.) and married her in 515 to the West Goth Eutharic (died before 526) (Chron. min. 2,160; Iord. Get. 174; 251; 298). A.'s son Athalaricus ( 518 or 516) was named king by Theoderic in 526, A. took over the regency (Iord. Get. 251; Procop. Goth. 5,2,1-3). Beginnings of a politics, which attempted at its heart under ‘provisional’ preservation of the basic principles of Theoderic (Cassiod. Var. 8,1-8) to ensure a peaceful life for the population on the basis of c…

Pompeia

(437 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Granddaughter of Sulla, second wife of Casesar Granddaughter of Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, sister of Q. Pompeius [I 6] Rufus. From 67 BC onwards, the second wife of Caesar (Plut. Caesar 5). Within the context of the Bona Dea scandal, Caesar separated from her in 62, alleging that he suspected P. of infidelity (Cic. Att. 1,13,3; Plut. Caesar 10,8-9; Plut. Cicero 29,9; Suet. Iul. 6,3; 74,2; Cass. Dio 37,45,2). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] …

Mucia Tertia

(193 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)

Livia

(919 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] From c. 104 BC spouse of Q. Servilius Caepio, later married to M. Porcius Cato Daughter of M. Livius [I 6] Drusus and Cornelia; sister of M. Livius [I 7] Drusus, from c. 104 BC spouse of Q. Servilius Caepio and mother of Servilia (later mother of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus); divorced after the quarrel of her husband with her brother. Issue from her second marriage (about 98) with M. Porcius Cato was M. Porcius Cato Uticen…

Aspasia

(395 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] A highly educated woman from Miletus known for her persuasive powers, who probably came to Athens early in the 440s; the wife of  Pericles, with whom she had a son also named Pericles. After Pericles' death in 429 she consorted with the livestock trader  Lysicles (Plut…
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