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Faustinupolis

(105 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Φαυστινούπολις; Phaustinoúpolis, colonia Faustinopolitanorum). Originally the village of Halala, 24 km south-east of Tyana; the modern Başmakcı. Here died in AD 176  Faustina the Younger [3] (SHA Aur. 26,4; 9), for which M. Aurelius elevated F. to the status of colonia. Attested since 431 as a bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography M. H. Ballance, Derbe and F., in: AS 14, 1964, 139-145 R. P. Harper, s.v. F., PE, 326 Hild/Restle, 258f. T. Drew-Bear, Inscriptions de Cappadoce, in: J. DesCourtils (…

Calchedon

(726 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Delian League (Καλχηδών; Kalchēdṓn, also Chalkedon; Lat. Calchedon, Calcedon, Chalcedon). [German version] I. Prehistory to Roman Period Prehistorical settlement area on the south-eastern entrance into the  Bosporus (map); in c. 685 BC, the harbour town was founded as a Megarian colony; modern Kadıköy. Its territory extended along the e…

Mnizus

(47 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μνίζος/ Mnízos). Way station, later a town, on the road from Nicaea to Ancyra (Cod. Theod. 9,40,16; 9,45,3), 8 km to the west of modern-day Ayaş. It was a suffragan bishopric from AD 451 until sometime in the 12th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 207.

Peium

(84 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Πήιον/ Pḗion, Latin Peium; Πεῶν χωρίον/ Peôn chōríon), Deiotarus' treasure fortress (Str. 12,5,2; Cic. Deiot. 17). Hellenistic and Byzantine castle, built in a meander of the river Siberis (Kirmir Çayi) on a steep-sided rock plateau, modern Tabanoğlu Kalesi. Strong entrenchment fortification, cisterns, traces of a palace and a tunnel stairway in the northern part of the site. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 212f.  S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, in: AS 24, 1974, 61-74  K. Strobel, Galatica II, in: Orbis Terrarum 6, 2000

Podanala

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Πωδανάλα/ Pōdanála). Fortified settlement of the northeastern tetrarchy of the Trocmi on the upper city of the Hittite cult city of Zippalanda (Kuşaklı Hüyük) near Sorgun; it was here that Pompeius [I 3] and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus met in 66 BC (Str. 12,5,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Strobel, Galatica I, in: Orbis Terrarum 3, 1997, 131-153.

Celts

(6,582 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] I. Name The name C. is first used by the Greek authors of the 5th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,49: Κελτοί; Keltoí; Scyl. 18). Their settlement area was called Keltikḗ (Κελτική). In around 270 BC, the term ‘Galatians’ (Γαλάται; Galátai) is found in Timaeus, the name exclusively applied to the C. in the east. The Greeks clearly distinguished between C. and Galatians. Confusion arose from the translation of Galli as Galatai by the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,1). Galatai as an alternative term for C. is surely connected with a second wave of Celtic immigration into Gaul in…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Aspona

(80 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Ἄσπονα, Ἄσπωνα; Áspona, Áspōna). Border town of  Galatia north of the Tuz Gölü, modern Sarıhüyük. Statio on the pilgrim route, in the 4th cent. AD civitas; documented as a suffragan diocese from AD 342/343. Fortified hill with evidence of settlement as early as prehistoric times. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Belke, Galatien und Lykaonien, TIB 4, 1984, 135 S. Mitchell, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor 2, 1982, 403-405.

Rhebas

(153 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Ῥήβας/ Rhḗbas). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia, present-day Riva Deresi River in Bithynia (Apoll. Rhod. 2,343; 650; Tab. Peut. 9,2 written incorrectly as ad herbas), present-day Riva Deresi; it discharges on the north coast of the Bithynian peninsula east of where the Bosporus flows into the Pontos Euxeinos. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography IK 10,3, 1987, 141 f. [German version] [2] Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, present-day Gökcesu Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, which rises on Olympus [13], present-day Gökçesu. Its valle…

Ancyra

(470 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Theatre | Byzantium | Zenobia | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Pergamum | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Ἄνκυρα; Ánkyra). City and fortress in  Galatia, modern Ankara. Anchors feature in legends, explaining the origin of the name (Paus. 1,4,5; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.; anchor as the city's symbol). Its origins lay in the prehistoric/ Hittite period; a Phrygian centre from the 8th to the 6th cents. BC (foundation myth: Paus…

Sangarius

(233 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σαγγάριος/ Sangários). River in Asia Minor, modern Sakarya, c. 520 km long, source (according to Str. 12,3,7; cf. 12,4,4; 5,3) 150 stadia from Pessinus (according to Liv. 38,18,8 at mons Adoreus) in Phrygia (Phryges). The headwaters of the upper course collect the water of the Phrygian highlands. In the prehistoric era, the southern river system of the S. was more significant; it carried away the precipitation from the area around Ilgın in the south to Yunak and today has left evidence of itself in a heavily…

Germia

(65 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Γέρμια; Gérmia). Town on the northern edge of the Dindymon in Galatia II, modern Gümüşkonak (previously Yürme; different [1]); attested from 553 as a suffragan diocese, then as an archdiocese.  Eudoxias Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 M. Waelkens, Germa, Germokoloneia, G., in: Byzantion 49, 1979, 447-464. K. Belke, G. und Eudoxias, in: W. Hörandner, Byzantios. FS H. Hunger, 1984, 1-11 Belke, 166-168, 247 Mitchell II, 129.

Iuliupolis

(131 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἰουλιούπολις; Ioulioúpolis). Originally Gordiou Kome, settlement in Galatia where the road from Nicaea to Ancyra crossed over the  Scopas (Procop. Aed. 5,4). Home of the dynast Cleon, who defected to Augustus in 31 BC. The settlement was named I. in his honour and extended to become a city (Str. 12,8,9; Plin. HN 5,143). After 25/4 BC it belonged to Bithynia (Plin. HN 5,149), from the time of Diocletian to the province of Galatia, then to Galatia I. Also called Basilaion (Basileon)…

Ladon

(581 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Λάδων; Ládōn). [German version] [1] Dragon The dragon referred to in Apoll. Rhod. 4,1396, elsewhere referred to only as a ‘serpent’ ( óphis, drákōn), who guards the apples of the Hesperides (as also mentioned on Probus in Verg. G. 1,244); he has a hundred heads and many voices. Mythographers have him either be descended directly (as a chthonic beast) from Gaia (as is Typhon) or from related monsters (Phorcys and Ceto, the parents of Echidna and grandparents of the Lernean Hydra in Hes. Theog. 333-335; Echidna and…

Tavium

(168 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Ḫattusa | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Celts | Pompeius | Patricius also Tavia, Tabia (Τάουιον/ Táouion, Ταβία/ Tabía; Old Anatolian Tawinija), city in Galatia at modern Büyüknefes. Centre, settled since the Chalcolithic period, which had acquired wider significance by the early Bronze Age. Important cult city of the Hittite Empire, significant centre in the 1st millennium BC. From 274/272 BC onwards a speedily Hellenized centre of the Trocmi a…

Syceon

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Συκεών/ Sykeṓn, Σικεών/ Sikeṓn). Place in Galatia (Proc. Aed. 5,4,1) where the road from Nicaea [5] to Ancyra crosses the Siberis, about 10 km to the south-southwest of modern Beypazarı, as a road station Fines Galatiae (Tab. Peut. 9,4, but incorrectly Fines Cilicie). Saint Theodorus lived and worked in S. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 228 f.  S. Mitchell, Anatolia, vol. 2, 1993, 122-150.

Cappadocia, I.

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καππαδοκία; Kappadokía). Region and kingdom in Asia Minor [German version] A. Geography and population C. (Str. 12,1f.) extends from the Taurus to the Black Sea coast; its western border to Paphlagonia and Phrygia, later also to Galatia, is at the Halys (and Lake Tatta); in the south-west, it borders on Lycaonia, in the east on Colchis, Lesser Armenia, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates, in the south on Cilicia and Commagene. The entire region is seen as an ethnic-linguistic entity, part of the Luwian-sp…

Nora

(375 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia This item can be found on the following maps: Sardinia et Corsica | Theatre | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Νώρα; Nṓra). Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia, approx. 20 km south of Cagliari. N. is regarded as the oldest town on the island (Paus. 10,17,5; Solin. 4,1; on its location cf. Itin. Anton. 85,2f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1). After a pre-colonial phase (cf. Phoenician inscriptions CIS I 144 c. 800 BC; [1. 1]), N. was founded by the Phoenicians in the mid 7th cent. BC. The Phoenician …

Mithridatium

(123 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Μιθριδάτιον; Mithridátion). Hellenistic fortress at the point where the Alaca Çayı breaks through the basin of Alaca towards the north, modern Gerdekkaya (north east Galatia; formerly usually erroneously identified with Kerkenes Dağı). Two rock tombs of the 3rd cent. BC; outer settlement until well into the Byzantine period. Fortress of the Trocmi, given by Pompey in 65/4 BC, with the surrounding territory, to Brogitarus (Str. 12,5,2); ori…

Bi­thynia

(1,312 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Βιθυνία; Bithynía). [German version] A. Geographical location Region and kingdom in north-western Asia Minor, with a Thracian population. Its core territory (Str. 12,3,2f.; 12,3,7; 4,1-10; [2; 3. 190ff.]) lies between the  Bosporus [1] and the area around the lower  Sangarius, from the Black Sea Coast to the Gulf of Cius, Lake Ascania and the Kapıorman Dağları range. The northern coastal region up to the Kales formed the original territory of  Thyni(a)s, inhabited by the related tribe of the  Thyni, …
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