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Oranten in der christlichen Kunst

(182 words)

Author(s): Arnulf, Arwed
[English Version] . Als O. bezeichnete stehende Figuren mit seitlich erhobenen Armen tauchen in Katakombenmalerei und spätantiker Sarkophagplastik, abhängig von der dem jeweilig übergeordnetem ikonographischen Thema auch in Gattungen der Kleinkunst auf. Als Darstellung des Gebets bereits in der paganen Kunst werden Orantenfiguren auch in der frühchristl. Kunst zur Verbildlichung des kraftvollen oder errettenden Gebets verwendet. Sie begegnen etwa in Darstellungen Daniels in der Löwengrube, Noahs i…

Orants

(194 words)

Author(s): Arnulf, Arwed
[German Version] …

John the Baptist, Saint

(2,577 words)

Author(s): Lupieri, Edmondo | Arnulf, Arwed
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Art I. New Testament 1. Sources John the Baptist is the Jewish preacher and prophet who baptized Jesus. Flavius Josephus ( Ant. XVIII5:2 [116–119]), the four gospels, and the Book of Acts are the only six texts we can use for the reconstruction of his historical figure. In Luke's account John was born of a priestly family during the reign of Herod the Great (46–4 bce). Mark, Matthew, and Josephus report that he was executed by Herod Antipas (4 bce–39 ce). Josephus places John's …

John, Apocalypse of/Book of Revelation

(5,137 words)

Author(s): Aune, David E. | Arnulf, Arwed
[German Version] I. Exegesis – II. Art History I. Exegesis 1. Historical issues a. Authorship The author of Revelation or the Apocalypse repeatedly tells us in the framework of his book that his name is John (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8). This, togeth…

Calvary

(787 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland | Arnulf, Arwed | Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Name – II. Art and Liturgy – III. Roman Catholic Congregations I. Name The Greek interpretation of the Aramaic Golgotha as Κρανίου Τόπος/ Kraniou Topos, “Skull Place” (Matt 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17; cf. Luke 23:32), is rendered almost uniformly in the Latin versions (Old Latin, Vulgate) as c alvariae locus. The Latin form gave rise to “Calvary” and similar terms in o…

Orpheus

(1,142 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Arnulf, Arwed
[German Version] I. Mythology – II. Art I. Mythology The stories of Orpheus reflect the emergence and rejection of a religious movement in Archaic…

Orpheus

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Arnulf, Arwed
[English Version] I. Mythologisch Die Erzählungen von O. spiegeln Entstehung und Ablehnung einer rel. Bewegung der griech. Archaik: Ein Prinz aus Thrakien in Nordgriechenland begeistert als Künstler; die psychagogische und entzückende Macht der Musik (Ekstase) wird erzählt in der Unterweltsfahrt: Die Gattin des O., Eurydike, stirbt. Um sie wiederzugewinnen, steigt O. in den Hades. Es gelingt ihm, durch die Musik Steine zu erweichen u…

Iconography

(6,550 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, Christoph | Koch, Güntram | Arnulf, Arwed | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Finster, Barbara | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Archaeology – III. Iconography and the Bible – IV. Christian Iconography – V. Jewish Iconography – VI. Islamic Iconography – VII. Buddhist Iconography – VIII. Hindu Iconography I. Religious Studies Iconography (Gk εἰκονογραϕία/ eikonographía) originally meant the description of images (Arist. Poet. XV; Strabo XV 1.19), but nowadays is used to refer to the methodical study of images. Where scholars distinguish between

Prophets and Prophecy

(8,753 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The term. In the significance ascribed to religious phenomena, prophecy surpasses individual experiences of mysticism, ecstasy, and inspiration, as well as the situational activities of established functionaries such as priests (Priesthood), shamans (Shamanism), or diviners (Divination). Revelations ascribed by prophets to the deity they serve give ethical guidance to a community.…

Prophet/Prophetin/Prophetie

(7,901 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.Der BegriffProphetie übersteigt in der den Ereignissen zugewiesenen Bedeutung Individualerfahrungen in Mystik, Ekstase oder bei Inspiration sowie situationsbezogene Aktivitäten etablierter Funktionsträger, etwa von Priestern (Priestertum), Schamanen oder Wahrsagern (Divination/Mantik). Von Propheten (P.) auf die jeweilige Gottheit zurückgeführte Offenbarungen haben wegweisenden ethischen Charakter für eine Gemeinschaft.Der Begriff προϕη´της/prophē´tēs entstammt der gri…