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Black Churches

(7,039 words)

Author(s): Jelks, Randal M. | Gerloff, Roswith I. H.
1. In the United States 1.1. Introduction Black churches in the United States represent a group of diverse congregations and historic denominations that have been fostered by, and are representative of, American Christians of African descent. African American denominations, like the majority of churches in the United States, are overwhelmingly Protestant, falling into three broad categories of Baptist, Methodist, and Pentecostal. Although African Americans have enduring historic relations within Roman …

Pentecostalism/Charismatic Movements

(5,310 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Robins, Roger G. | Gerloff, Roswith | Bergunder, Michael
[German Version] I. Church History 1. On Jan 2, 1901, the Bethel Bible School in Topeka, Kansas, headed by C.F. Parham, experienced pneumatic phenomena, which were interpreted as missionary preparation and “baptism in the Spirit” (as in Acts 2). From 1906 to 1913, the “Azusa Street Revival” in Los Angeles, led by Pastor W.J. Seymour, the son of a black slave, became the birthplace of the modern Pentecostal movement. “Pentecostal churches” sprang up almost overnight (see II, 1 below). In 2002 some 20% …


(20,376 words)

Author(s): Dondelinger, Patrick | Auffarth, Christoph | Braulik, Georg | Reif, Stefan C. | Johnson, Luke T. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The German word Gottesdienst (“worship,” lit. “service of God”) is attested since the 13th/14th century as a German translation of Latin cultus (Cult/Worship). It came into common use in the 16th century, especially in Luther’s works. Starting with an ethical understanding of the word, Luther himself used it as a technical term for the common celebration of the Word of God, as it evolved from the evangelical reform of the Catholic sacrifice (IV) of the mass. For centuries the term Gottesdienst remained limited to this specific form of worship of …

West Indies Missions

(238 words)

Author(s): Gerloff, Roswith
[German Version] The history of the church in the Caribbean falls into several periods: Spanish Catholic colonial Christianity, beginning in 1492, and Anglican colonial Christianity, beginning in 1620; the period of modern Protestant missions (Herrnhuters, Baptists, Methodists, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians), beginning in 1732; the founding of independent African Christian groups alongside traditional religious groups, primarily from the dawn of emancipation in1833 to the coming of indepen…


(2,671 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Rajak, Tessa | Dan, Joseph | Fleischmann-Bisten, Walter | Gerloff, Roswith
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Jewish Diaspora – III. Christian Diaspora I. History of Religions The Greek noun διασπορά/ diasporá derives from the composite verb διασπείρω/ dia-speírō, translated “to disperse, scatter, be separated.” Epicurus, following Plutarch, used diasporá in the context of his philosophical doctrine of the atom in the sense of “dissolution down to the last units, to have become without context.” The Jewish tran…