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Paraetonium

(80 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Limes (Παραιτόνιον; Paraitónion). Port c. 300 km west of Alexandria [1], modern Marsā Maṭrūḥ, the point of departure of the road to the oasis of Siwa (Ammoneion), also called ἡ Ἀμμωνία/ hē Ammōnía (Str. 17,799). P. was important as a port and for border security during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods; during the New Kingdom, there was a fortress close to modern Umm ar-Raḫam. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Taposiris

(176 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Ταποσῖρις; Taposîris). [German version] [1] Town in the Nile Delta Town in the Nile Delta (modern Abusir), about 50 km to the west of Alexandria [1] between Lake Mareotis and the sea; first recorded in the Ptolemaic period and named after a temple of Osiris (enclosure walls are extant). In the Christian period, a church was incorporated into the temple. Another large church building was discovered outside the area of the town. In addition, there are remains of a lighthouse and of (interior) port installations. T. ( megálē) was probably a transit and customs station for trade a…

Ombi

(207 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Ὄμβοι; Ómboi). Two towns in Egypt. Their names are derived from Egyptian nbw, 'gold', possibly indicating that they were points of departure for the search for gold in the neighbouring desert regions. [German version] [1] Town in the 5th nome of Upper Egypt Egyptian Nbwt, town in the 5th nome of Upper Egypt, close to modern Ṭūḫ. Cult town of the god Seth, of whose temple little remains. As a result of the vilification of Seth, the town lost its importance after the New Kingdom. Juv. 15,33f. mentions a dispute between the residents of O. …

Apries

(100 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Fourth king of the 26th dynasty (589-570 BC), Egyptian Wḥ-jb-R, Hophra in the OT, son and successor to Psametich II. At the beginning of his reign, he intervenes unsuccessfully in Palestine against the rule of the Chaldaeans. His support of the Libyans of Cyrenaica against the Greeks there is just as unsuccessful. After a defeat, the army installs  Amasis as the new king. A. is beaten; the sources give contradictory accounts of his death, but he is buried as a king in Sais. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Schneider, Lex. der Pharaonen, 1994, 81-83 LÄ 1, 35…

Tutankhamun

(166 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Egyptian king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1333-1323 BC, Egyptian Twt-nḫ-Jmn ('Living Image of Amun'), throne name Nb-ḫprw-R, who ascended the throne while still a child. T. was the son of a king (presumably Amenophis [4] IV = Amenhotep IV); T. married a daughter of Amenophis IV and Nefertiti). The restoration of the old cults (primarily that of Amun) begun by his predecessor Smenkhkare was continued under T., and the religious policies of Amenophis [4] IV were abandoned completely. During the …

Nectanebus

(474 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Name of two Egyptian kings of the 30th Dynasty. [German version] [1] N. I Egyptian king, founder of the 30th Dynasty (380-363/2). Νεκτανέβις/-νίβις ( Nektanébis/- níbis), Egyptian Nḫt-nb.f; founder of the 30th Dynasty, son of a general Tachos ( Ḏd-ḥr) from Sebennytus. N. himself was a general under his predecessor Nepherites II, whom he overthrew shortly after his accession. Egypt had hardly any allies at the time, nevertheless it was able to ward off a Persian invasion attempt in 373 BC, in which the Athenian general Iphicrates participated on the Per…

Memphis

(717 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Egypt | Caesar | Zenobia | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Pilgrimage | Aegean Koine | Egypt City in Egypt, situated on the west bank of the Nile about 30 km south of the apex of the Delta. The name M. (Greek. Μέμφις; assyr. Mempi) derived from the name of the pyramid town of king Pepi I. (around 2300), Egyptian Mn-nfr-( Pjpj). The older name, ‘White Wall’ (Egyptian Jnb-ḥḏ; leúkon teíchos/λευκὸν τεῖχος in Hdt. 3,91 and Thuc. 1,104), probably referring to the particularly well-fortified cen…

Nilopolis

(115 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Νείλου πόλις/ Neílou pólis). [German version] [1] Settlement in Middle Egypt Settlement in Middle Egypt, 13 km north of Banī Suwaif, Coptic Tilodj, modern Dalāṣ. The settlement is not known from ancient Egyptian times; N. was a diocesan town in the Christian period. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] Village in the Fayum Village in the Fayum, near Soknopaiou Nesos, modern Tall ar-Ruṣaṣ, with an Isis cult. Known from numerous papyrus finds from the later Ptolemaic to the Byzantine period. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, s.v. Nilopolis, …

Actisanes

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] According to Diod. Sic. 1,60, Ethiopian king who freed Egypt from the rule of one Amasis and founded Rhinocoloura (El-Arish) as a penal colony. Neither his historicity nor his chronological position are certain. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Burton, Diod. Sic., Book I, 1972, 180 f.

Psammuthis

(44 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ψάμμουθις; Psámmouthis). Ruler of the 29th dynasty, Egyptian P-š(rj-n) Mwt, rival claimant to the throne of Acoris [2] (presumably 393-392 or 391-390 BC), attested particularly in Thebes. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography J. D. Ray, Ps. and Hakoris, in: JEA 72, 1986, 149-156.

Taracus

(244 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάρκος/ Tárkos, Assyrian Tarqû, Egyptian  Th()rq(), in scholarly literature usually Taharka/o). Nubian king, third and most significant ruler (690-664 BC) of the Egyptian 25th Dynasty, throne name Ḫwj-Nfrtm-R. When he was 20 years old, he was summoned by his brother(?) and predecessor Sebichus from Nubia to Egypt, and led the Egyptian army in the (lost) battle of Eltekeh (ANET, 287 f.; 2 Kg 19,9) in 701 BC. In 690 BC, he succeeded Sebichus to the throne, according to his own account as his chosen succe…

Thmuis

(132 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θμοῦις/ Thmoûis; Egyptian T-mw(t), 'new-land'), the modern ( Tall) Timay, town neighbouring Mendes in the northeast of the Nile delta; first mentioned in Jos. BI 4,659, but significantly older (cf. archaeological finds [1]; Hdt. 2,166). In the Roman period T. replaced Mendes as district capital; Amm. Marc. 22,16 cites T. among the most significant cities of Egypt. By 250 AD (until the 10th/11th cent.) T. was a bishopric. In the later…

Thutmosis

(397 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Name of four Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty, Egyptian Ḏḥwtj-msjw ('Thot is born'). Their chronology is uncertain, as the lengths of the reigns of T. I and II are unknown and T. III's ascent of the throne has been astronomically dated to 1504, 1490 or (most credibly) 1479 BC. [German version] [1] T. I Throne name -ḫpr-k-R, third king of the 18th Dynasty, c. 1496-1482 (only three regnal years are safely attested). T. undertook campaigns to Nubia and Syria as far as the Euphrates, during which the first conflicts with Mittani occured.  He was the first Phar…

Daphnae

(119 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization Egyptian city on the edge of the East Delta, today known as Tall Dafana (Egyptian Ṯbn?). According to Hdt. 2,30, it was a border fortress of  Psametichus I; archaeological discoveries dating from the New Kingdom, the 26th Dynasty and later, including fortifications, weapons and Greek ceramics. It is possible that it could also have been one of the stratópeda of Greek and Carian mercenaries mentioned in Hdt. 2,154. It is disputed as to whether it is the same as the OT Thachpanches. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibl…

Sirbonis

(72 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σιρβωνὶς λίμνη/ Sirbōnís límnē). Coastal lake east of Pelusium on the northeastern border of Egypt, separated from the Mediterranean by only a narrow strip of land, west of Mount Casium. According to Strabo, it was 200 stadia long, 50 stadia wide and rather deep (16,2,32; 16,2,42). The lake was claimed to be dangerous due to marshiness (cf. Diod. Sic. 1,30; 16,46) and to seaquakes (Str. 16,2,26). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Philae

(276 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | India, trade with (Φιλαί/ Philaí, Egyptian P-Jrk, probably a Nubian name). Small island at the southern end of the first Nile cataract, with a famous temple of Isis and a number of smaller sanctuaries. Blocks incorporated in the buildings, which show the names of kings, prove that there was a sanctuary under Taharka (690-664) at the latest, and a temple of Isis from the time of Amasis [2] at the latest. The earliest still visible buildings date…

Papremis

(88 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Πάπρεμις; Pápremis). Capital city of a nome in the western Nile delta, according to Hdt. (2,59; 63) with the cult  of Ares (= Horus?) at whose festival ritual mass battles took place. Hermotybians (Hdt. 2,165) settled in the nome of P., and the hippopotamus was worshipped there (Hdt. 2,71). In 460(?) BC, the Libyan prince Inarus defeated the Persians at P. Neither the etymology of P. nor its exact location have been conclusively established. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. de Meulenaere, s.v. P., LÄ 4, 666-667.

Dendara

(124 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian Jwnt[- t-nṯrt], Greek Τεντυρα; Tentura), city in Upper Egypt, located on the west bank of the Nile opposite today's Qena, capital of the 6th Upper Egyptian nome. From earliest times, D. was an important centre, and especially significant from the Old Kingdom to the early Middle Kingdom. Details of a large number of the nome's strategoi from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods have been preserved on their monuments. The most important deity was the goddess of love, Hathor. Her sanctuary, dating from the Old Kingdom, was extended …

Canope

(133 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Name of the (mostly stone) jugs in which the Egyptians interred entrails, often stored in their own boxes. They came under the protection of four gods (‘Sons of Horus’) and four goddesses ( Isis,  Nephthys,  Neith,  Selcis) and often are inscribed with sayings that correlate the parts of the corpse with the corresponding divinities. From the 1st interim period (2190-1990 BC) the lid of the Canope was mostly shaped like the head of a human, from the 19th dynasty also as heads of th…

Phiops

(288 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φίοψ/ Phíops or Φιός/ Phiós). Greek form of the name of two Egyptian kings (Egyptian Pjpj). [German version] [1] P. I Third king of the 6th Egyptian dynasty Third king of the 6th dynasty ( c. 2300-2250 BC). Under his reign, expeditions to the Sinai [1], to Byblos [1], Nubia and Punt are attested. An inscription of P. was found in Palace G in Ebla. A courtier reported in his funerary inscription that there was a secret investigation of a harem conspiracy led by the queen [1. 98-110]; the same report mentions five military campaigns against Asian nomads. The name of the pyramid (-town) of P. ( Mn-nf…

Acoris

(155 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] [1] City in Middle Egypt City in Middle Egypt, north of Minia on the east bank of the Nile, nowadays called Tehne (el-Gebel). There is evidence of A. dating from the Ptolemaic period and official documentation dating back to Roman times. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] Egyptian king Third king of the 29th Dynasty (393/2-380 BC, Egyptian Hkr), kinship with predecessors and successors is uncertain. He formed an alliance with Athens and  Evagoras of Salamis to fight against the Persians and, in 385-83 BC, was abl…

Marea

(225 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Town west of Alexandria [1], situated on the southern bank of Lake Mareotis in a famous wine-growing area (Str. 17,799); Egyptian mrt, modern Kaum al-Idrís, regarded in the Egyptian temple lists as in the 3rd district of lower Egypt, in Roman times however itself the capital of the Mareotis. M. is first attested in Hdt. 2,18, where it is stated that the inhabitants felt that they were Libyans. From the beginning of the 26th dynasty to the Persian period, the border garrison against Libya was situated …

Sebennytus

(164 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σεβεννῦτος/ Sebennŷtos). Town in the central Nile Delta, on the Damiette arm of the Nile, Egyptian Ṯb-nṯr, Assyrian Ṣabnūti, modern Samannūd. As a city (its name was also used to denote the 12th district of Lower Egypt) S. is not recorded before the 8th century BC - as the residence of local Libyan princes. In the second half of the 1st millennium BC it became one of the most important towns of the Delta. The kings of the 30th dynasty (380-342)…

Tementhes

(154 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τεμένθης/ Teménthēs). Egyptian king, according to Polyaenus, Strat. 7,3 (cf. FGrH 665 F 200) defeated near Memphis by Psammetichos [1] I with the aid of Carian mercenaries. T. is probably a Graecized form of Tanutamani, Egyptian Tnwt-Ymn, throne name B-k-R, the last king of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (664-656 BC, not in Manetho [1]) and successor of Taracus (Taharqa). In 664 BC, T. reconquered Egypt as far as the Nile Delta, with Necho [1] I being killed. Shortly afterwards T. was driven out by troops of Assurbanipa…

Rosetta Stone

(137 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Part of a granite tablet discovered in 1799 by French soldiers near the settlement of Rosetta (el-Rashid) on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast (now in the British Museum in London), bearing text in three languages. The inscription is a decree regarding the cult of the ruling monarch in the Egyptian temples, passed by a priestly synod in Memphis on 27 March, 196 BC, on the occasion of the coronation of Ptolemaeus [I 8] V Epiphanes and meant to be displayed in all of the country's te…

Onuphis

(71 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὄνουφις; Ónouphis). Town in Lower Egypt and the nome named after it (Ὀνουφίτης), first referred to in Hdt. 2,166 as a settlement area of the Calasirieis, later mentioned by ancient geographers (Plin. HN 4,49; Ptol. Geog. 4,5,22 among others) and in a Coptic list of bishops; presumably in the central Delta near modern Maḥallat Minūf. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A.B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book II, Commentary 99-182, 1988, 193-4.

Necropolis

(80 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νεκρόπολις/ Nekrópolis). In Str. 17,1,10; 14 the name of the extended cemetery district with gardens, tombs and embalming places to the west of the city wall of Alexandria [1], attested from the 3rd cent. BC until the Arab conquest. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Adriani, Repertorio d'arte dell' Egitto greco-romano, Serie C 1-2, 1966  P.M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, vols. 1-3, 1972  G. Grimm, Alexandria. Die erste Königsstadt der hellenistischen Welt, 1998  H. Kees, s.v. Nekropolis, RE 16, 2233f.

Xois

(172 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξοίς; Xoís). Egyptian city in the northwestern Nile Delta, Egyptian ( pr-) Ḫsww, chief town of the Sixth District of Lower Egypt. Parts of the ancient settlement are beneath modern Saḫā; no others are extant. There are no archaeological remains from the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC and few textual references; most of the finds are from the Hellenistic and Roman periods. According to a dubious piece of information in Manetho [1] (FGrH 609 F 2,10), the 14th Dynasty ( c. 1650 BC) is supposed to originate from X. During the troubles at the end of the 19th Dynasty ( c. 1200 BC), th…

Myecphorites

(60 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Μυεκφορίτης; Myekphorítēs). Egyptian district, mentioned only in Hdt. 2,166, located on an ‘island’ (surrounded by arms of the Nile or canals) across from Bubastis and inhabited by Calasirieis. The etymology of the name is unclear, it may mean the 20th district of lower Egypt. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A.B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book II, Comm. 99-182, 1988, 195.

Necho

(316 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Greek form of the name of two Egyptian kings. [German version] [1] N. I. Local ruler in the western Nile Delta ( Nkw). Local ruler in the western Nile Delta c. 672-664 BC, father of Psammetichus I, the founder of the 26th Dynasty. N. was the only one of the Delta princes to be pardoned by Assurbanipal despite his participation in an anti-Assyrian conspiracy and was reinstalled as ruler in Saïs. According to Hdt. 2,152,3, N. was killed during the Nubians' advance north (probably in 664 under Tanutamun). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] N. II. Egyptian king of the 26. …

Bokchoris

(92 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] King in Lower Egypt ( c. 720-715 BC), Egyptian Bk-n-rn.f, second and last ruler of the 24th dynasty. He was dethroned by the Nubian king, Shabako, who conquered the whole of Egypt around 715 BC and, according to  Manetho, had B. burned alive. B.'s reign has very little contemporary attestation. All the greater, then, is his fame in later Egyptian and ancient tradition, which regarded him as a sage and a great legislator. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Schneider, Lex. der Pharaonen, 1994, 93f. LÄ 1, 846 RE 3, 66f.

Calasiris

(38 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλάσιρις; Kalásiris).The priest C. is one of the main figures in  Heliodorus' [8] novel Aithiopiká. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. Kalasiris, RE 10, 1547  A.B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book II, vol. 2, 1976, 342.

Caranis

(93 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Καρανίς; Karanís). Important Greek settlement (κώμη) on the northern edge of the  Fayum, now Kom Ausīm; founded in the early Ptolemaic period and abandoned again in the 5th cent. AD. Large parts of the town are still well preserved and have been carefully excavated; among these are two temples. From C. come c. 5,000 Greek Papyri and Ostraka, mostly from Roman times (2nd-3rd cents. AD). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Calderini, s.v. Karanis, Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici 3, 1978, 70-79 R. Alston, Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt…

Neith

(268 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νηίθ; äg. Njt.t (?)). Egyptian goddess with her main cult site at Sais in the western Nile delta. With regard to monuments as well as to personal names, N. was the most prominent goddess of the Early Period (1st half of 3rd millennium BC). Later, especially during the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom, she receded in comparison to other divinities; from the 26th Dynasty on, however, when Sais became the royal residence, she regained pre-eminent importance. Originally, N. may have been…

Kalasiris

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (καλάσιρις; kalásiris). According to Hdt. 2,81, a fringed linen undergarment worn by the Egyptians; according to Democr. (FGrH 267, F.1) also worn by Persians and Ionians, probably to be connected with the Egyptian warrior class of the Kalasirieis. Cf. Calasiris. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Pikrai Limnai

(61 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Πικραὶ λίμναι/ Pikraì límnai). Term (Str. 17,1,24) for the brackish 'bitter lakes' on the Isthmus of Suez, ancient Egyptian km-wr, 'great black (lake)'. In the 3rd and early 2nd millennia there were fortifications there, later the canal to the Red Sea (Ptolemaïs) was routed through these waters. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography K.W. Butzer, s.v. Bitterseen, LÄ 1, 824f.

Leuke Akte

(78 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Λευκὴ ἀκτή; Leukḕ aktḗ). ‘White cape’ on the Libyan coast of Egypt, near the small Catabathmus, modern Ras al-Abja (on the Ras al-Kanais, c. 60 km east of Marsa Matruh), mentioned in e.g. Str. 10,489; 17,799; Ptol. 4,5,3. According to POxy. XI,1380,45, Isis was venerated at Leuke Akte as Aphrodite, Muchis and Eseremphis. There was also an oracle sanctuary of Apollo ( Horus). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. L.A., RE 12, 2261.

Tanis

(249 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Τάνις; Tánis). [German version] [1] City in the northeast of the Nile Delta This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt City in the northeast of the Nile Delta, Egyptian Ḏn.t, Biblical Zoan, modern (Tell) San el-Hagar, the largest ruin mound in Egypt (177 ha, 30 m high). T. was founded as a residence in place of the abandoned Pi-Ramesses ( c. 20 km to the south) at the beginning of the 21st Dynasty ( c. 1070 BC). Sculptures and other stone from Pi-Ramesses (some of which had already been re-used there) were used for the construction of T. This older building…

Somtutefnakht

(58 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian Zm-twy-ty.f-nḫtt). Head of the Egyptian city of Heracleopolis Magna c. 660-630 BC, naval commander and supervisor of Upper Egypt, related to the royal house, an important ally of Psammetichus [1] I when the latter extended his power to Middle and Upper Egypt. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography G. Vittmann, Der demotische Papyrus Rylands 9, 1998, 708-713.

Ramesses

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Name of eleven pharaohs, Egyptian R-msj-sw (“Re (the sun god) is the one who gave him birth”), vocalized Rīamašeša in Babylonian, rendered in Greek by Ῥαμέσσης and the like. [German version] [1] R. I Dynasty founder (Throne name Mn-pḥtj-R). The founder of the 19th dynasty ( c. 1292-1290 BC) came from a non-royal family (from the eastern Delta?) and was a high-ranking officer before he was named as vizier and heir to the throne by his predecessor Haremhab. His son Sethos I was probably immediately designated as his successor. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] R. II Egy…

Cynopolis, Cynopolites

(190 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Town in Upper Egypt The Greek town called κυνῶν πόλις ( kynôn pólis); ‘town of dogs’; Str. 17,812) was at times the capital city of the 17th nomos of Upper Egypt (κυνοπολίτης; Kynopolítēs) and according to Ptol. 4,5,29 was situated on an island. C. (Egyptian Ḥr-dj) is often mentioned in texts of the New Kingdom and was the cult town of the dog-headed god  Anubis. Under Ramses XI it was destroyed in a civil war. Its exact location is unknown, presumably it was near Sheikh Fadl where a dog cemetery was also found. Plut. De …

Prosopites

(160 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Προσωπῖτις, Προσωπίτης/ Prosōpîtis, Prosōpítēs). Region in the south-western Nile delta, situated between the branch of Canopus and another watercourse (according to Hdt. 2,41 an island), probably the area of the 4th administrative district of Lower Egypt, according to Hdt. 2,165 the area where the Hermotybians settled. Apart from the capital city Nikiu there were several other cities here, among others Atarbechis where Aphrodite (= Hathor) was worshipped and where mass burials of c…

Schoinos

(117 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (σχοῖνος/ schoînos, 'rush, reed'), Egyptian measure of length, which according to Hdt. 2,6 corresponds to 60 stadia (Stadion [1]), but according to Str. 17,1,24 and 4, it varied (depending on geographic location) between 30 and 120 stadia. The Egyptian equivalent jtrw represents the distance over which a towing team was able to tow a boat. With local variations, the average is assumed to be 10.5 km. The name schoinos is based on an etymological misinterpretation: through sound change, the Egyptian jtrw assimilated with the word for (i.a.) 'reed' ( jrw). Jansen-Winke…

Sebritai, Sembritai

(108 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σε(μ)βρῖται/ Se(m)brîtai). According to Str. 16,4,8 and 17,1,2 the term ('foreigners') for (allegedly 240,000) Egyptian soldiers who under Psammetichus [1] I (664-610 BC) deserted from their garrison in Elephantine (cf. Hdt. 2,30 and Diod. Sic. 1,67) and settled in Sudan. As for the precise location of this settlement the sources conflict (cf. apart from Str. also Plin. HN 6,191 ff.; Ptol. 4,20 ff.). The historicity of Herodotus's account can not be confirmed from Egyptian sources…

Metelis

(135 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Μέτηλις; Métēlis). Town in the north-western Nile delta, east of Alexandria; the precise location of M. and its Arab successor settlement of Maṣil remains unclear, but probably near Fuwwa (Kom el-Aḥmar?). In the Roman period, M. was the capital of a new nome of Metelites on the territory of the former 7th Lower Egyptian district. Its chief deity was Hathor/ Isis, who was honoured in the shape of a falcon (Egyptian bjk); the placename Bechis (Βῆχις; Bêchis), given by Steph. Byz. for M., is derived from this. In the Byzantine and Arab periods (until the 11…

Cercasorus

(52 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Κερκάσωρος, Κερκέσουρα; Kerkásōros, Kerkésoura). Town in Lower Egypt where, according to Hdt. 2,15; 2,17, the Nile divides into the branches of Pelusium and Canobus, according to Str. 17,806 situated on the west bank opposite Heliopolis, perhaps the Egyptian Ḥwt-šd-bd. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography F. Gomaà, s.v. Hutsched-abed, LÄ 3, 89-90.

Kalasirieis

(126 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλασιριεῖς; Kalasirieîs). Along with the hermotybies, the Kalasirieis were one of the two classes in the Egyptian caste of warriors (μάχιμοι), instituted, according to Diod. Sic. 1,94, by a king Σεσόωσις/ Sesóōsis (Sheshonk I ?). According to Hdt. 2,166, they were up to 250,000 men strong and lived in Thebes and in certain towns in the Nile Delta. The Egyptian term krj-š (the meaning is uncertain) is attested from the 20th Dynasty on, a corresponding group with military and police functions is attested from the 26th Dynasty until the beginning of Roman rule. Jansen-Wink…

Panopolis

(189 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Πανῶν πόλις; Panôn pólis). City in Upper Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile, c. 200 km north of Luxor, Egyptian Jpw or Ḫnt-Mnw, from this Greek Χέμμις ( Chémmis; Hdt. 2,91) and the modern name Aḫmīm. The name Πανῶν πόλις or Πανὸς πόλις ( Panòs pólis; 'city of Pan') is based on the identification of the main deity of P., the ithyphallically depicted god of fertility Min, with Greek Pan. Isis and (Min-)Horus were also worshipped in P. and the latter was presumably identified by Hdt. 2,91 with Perseus. The competitions in h…

Buto

(229 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] City in the west delta to the north of Sais in the 6th region of Lower Egypt; actually a twin city which, in older sources, only appears in the names of its parts Pe and Dep. The name B. has its origins in the Egyptian Prw dyt, house of Wśdy (Uto), who, in the form of a snake, is the national and crown goddess of Lower Egypt and who, together with  Horus, is the most important local deity. B. was already settled in prehistoric times and was apparently an important centre. Archaeological finds and epigraphic reports about B., ho…

Sabacon

(191 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαβάκων/ Sabákōn). First king of the 25th (Nubian) dynasty, Egyptian Šbk­, brother and successor of Pi(anch)i (Pije). In the traditional chronology, his minimally 15-year reign is estimated at c. 716/5 to 702/1 BC. However, since a recently published Assyrian inscription indicates that his successor Sebichus was already king in 706 [1], S. must have ascended the throne in 720 at the latest. In the 2nd year of his reign, S. conquered Egypt and according to Manetho [1] had his adversary Bokchoris burnt ali…
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