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(920 words)

Author(s): Koenen, Klaus | Niebuhr, Karl-Wilhelm
[English Version] Griech. παραι´n̆εσις/parai´nesis (von παραιn̆ε´ω/paraine´ō) bedeutet »Empfehlung, Rat, Ermahnung«. In der Stoa kann der Begriff für den Teil der Philos. verwendet werden, der mahnend aus der Lehre Konsequenzen zieht (Sen.ep. 95,1). In der Bibelwiss. bez. er meist keine feste Gattung, sondern eine Funktion. Er charakterisiert einen Text als wohlmeinende Ermahnung zu rechtem Verhalten. Sie wird von einer Autorität – zuweilen einem Sterbenden (Dtn; 1Kön 2,1ff.; Tob 14) – gesprochen un…


(1,098 words)

Author(s): Koenen, Klaus | Niebuhr, Karl-Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament Greek παραίνεσις/ paraínesis (from παραινέω/ parainéō) means “advice, counsel, exhortation.” Among the Stoics, the term can be used for the part of philosophy that hortatively expounds the practical conclusions of their teaching (Sen. Ep. 95.1). In biblical studies, it usually does not represent a fixed genre but a function. It characterizes a text as well-intentioned exhortation to proper behavior. It is spoken by an authority – sometimes someone on his deathbed (Deut; 1 Kgs 2:1ff.;…


(8,783 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Dorothea | Xella, Paolo | Ego, Beate | Niebuhr, Karl-Wilhelm | Lehmkühler, Karsten | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Scholarship – III. Ancient Near East – IV. Old Testament and Early Judaism – V. New Testament – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Christianity – VIII. Liturgical Practice – IX. Ethics I. Religious Studies 1. Concept The word “cult” comes from Lat. cultus. Cicero ( De senectute 56) uses the phrase cultus deorum in the sense of “worship of the gods.” It invariably refers to acts of “care and tending”; in secular contexts the word denotes agrarian work (cf. agriculture). There are analogous words in other ancient languages…