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Church in Socialism,

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] term for the political position of the Evangelical churches in the German Democratic Republic. While the SED (Socialist Unity Party) state used the formula to oblige the churches to accept socialism, for the churches it served a variety of functions. In the first instance, the churches used it to signal their renunciation of public opposition to GDR socialism and thus their fundamental loyalty to the system of ¶ the GDR. At the same time, the formula avoided acclamation. It did not signify a preferential option for socialism. Above all, it …

Roles

(461 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] ( in religious studies). Religious roles represent a set of behavioral expectations developed by a religious community; they relate to the perception of particular religious functions, such as administration of the cult, proclamation of religious teaching, dissemination of the teaching, care for personal salvation or the salvation of others. Typical religious roles include those of priest (Priesthood), teacher, missionary, pastoral practitioner, monk (Monasticism), nun, guru, shaman …

Value Change

(464 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] The expression value change usually refers to the change of attitude from materialistic to post-materialistic values that took place in highly industrialized Western societies in the 1960s and 1970s. Ronald Inglehart, whose work substantially influen…

Germany

(25,084 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brenner, Beatus | Dehn, Ulrich | Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History and Denominations – III. Non-Christian Religions – IV. Society, Culture, Religion, and the Churches in the Present…

Evolution

(3,425 words)

Author(s): Polkinghorne, John | Pollack, Detlef | Hübner, Jürgen | Kubon-Gilke, Gisela | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. History and Cosmology – II. Religious Studies – III. Evolution and Creation – IV. Social Sciences – V. Ethics I. History and Cosmology The significance of the no…

Systems Theory

(3,570 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef | Hesse, Heidrun | Herms, Eilert | Dinkel, Christoph | Evers, Dirk
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Systems theory considers religion one social system alongside others, like the economy, law (Law and Jurisprudence), politics, and education and analyzes it in terms of the function it discharges. The evolutionary approach of systems theory assumes that in primordial local communities the function of religion was nonspecific and was ful…

Modernization

(3,401 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef | Ludwig, Frieder | Münch, Richard | Gräb, Wilhelm | Hock, Klaus
[German Version] I. Study of Religion – II. History – III. Sociology – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. Study of Religion The term modernization usually refers to mutually reinforcing structural changes in various social sectors: nation building and democratization in the political sector; industrialization and tertiarization (i.e. the development of services) in the economic sector; urbanization, educational expansion, and mobilization in the social sector; diversification and individualizatio…

Group

(212 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] A group is a limited number of persons between whom repeated direct personal contact is possible over a long period of time. Groups differ from simple systems of interaction by virtue of their durability, and from organizations in the lesser degree of reg…

Groups, Church

(404 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef