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Dustūr

(44,385 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Lewis, B. | Khadduri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Caldwell, J.A.M. | Et al.
, in modern Arabic constitution. A word of Persian origin, it seems originally to have meant a person exercising authority, whether religious or political, and was later specialized to designate members of the Zoroastrian priesthood. It occurs in Kalīla wa-Dimna in the sense of “counsellor”, and recurs with the same sense, at a much later date, in the phrase

Ḳawmiyya

(15,445 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J. | Brett, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Dodd, C.H. | Wheeler, G.E. | Et al.
(a.), nationalism. 1. In the Arab world east of the Mag̲h̲rib. The term derives from ḳawm , a term of tribal provenance used to denote a group of people having or claiming a common ancestor, or a tribe descended from a single ancestor. One’s ḳawm is simply one’s people, either genealogically determined or mythologically and folklorishly depicted. In this century, ḳawmiyya refers to the movement of nationalism among the Arabs of the Ottoman dominions in the Fertile Crescent that were conquered by the Allies in the Great War. The use of the term has spread since the Second World War to other parts of the Arabic-speaking world. After the mid-20th century, ḳawmiyya became the expression of a purported economic, political and social Arab revolution. Essentially, though, al-ḳawmiyya al-ʿarabiyya is the term widely used for the movement of Arab nationalism. Arab intellectuals since the last war have tried to formulate theoretical and philosophical foundations as well as historical and ideological premises for this nationalism. Most active among them were Syrian, Lebanese and Iraqi politicians, teachers, journalists, writers and publicists. Prominent among the more recent exponents and advocates of Arab nationalism have been the Baʿt̲h̲ (Baath) party, founded in 1943, and its antecedents among smaller radical Arab youth movements in Iraq and Syria in the nineteen-thirties. In 1955, D̲j̲amāl ʿAbd al-Nāṣir (Nasser) of Egypt…

Ḥukūma

(18,623 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Ahmad, F. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Vatikiotis, P.J. | Tourneau, R. le | Et al.
, in modern Arabic “government”. Like many political neologisms in Islamic languages, the word seems to have been first used in its modern sense in 19th century Turkey, and to have passed from Turkish into Arabic and other languages. Ḥukūma

Iran

(85,490 words)

Author(s): McLachlan, K.S. | Coon, C.S. | Mokri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Savory, R.M. | Et al.
i.—Geography The geological background: The alignments of Iran’s principal topographie features, represented by the Kūhhā-yi Alburz and the Zagros Chain, are west to east and north-west to south-east, respectively. In broad context, the Alburz is a continuation of the European Alpine structures, while the Zagros chain has been linked through Cyprus with the Dinaric Alps (Fisher, 1956). The structure of the mountain rim of the country has been influenced strongly by tectonic movements which have n…
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