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Achilles

(2,497 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Myth Hero from Greek mythology (Ἀχιλλεύς, Ἀχιλεύς [ Achil(l)eús], Etruscan Αχλε [ Achle], Latin Achilles). Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) [German version] A. Etymology We still lack a reliable explanation of A.'s name, which is presumably of pre-Greek origin. Explanations from antiquity vary: Schol. Il. 1,1 derives the name from the ‘sorrow’ ( áchos) caused by A. to the Trojans (i.e. the ‘Ilians’). Another explanation (e.g. Tzetzes, Lycoph. 178) derives the name from χεῖλος ( cheîlos; ‘lip’) and α- privativum; A. meaning ‘without lip’, as he is said to hav…

Minerva

(2,227 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Menerva, Menrva). I. Cult A. The earliest findings [German version] 1. General M. is traditionally considered an Etruscan deity that came to Rome as part of the Capitoline Triad of Jupiter, Juno and M., who had their temple on the Capitolium ([1; 5]; undecided [6. 163f.]). Thus, on the basis of representations of M. on Etruscan mirrors as a martial goddess [2] modelled on the Greek Athena, it is assumed that she was a Hellenic goddess introduced via Etruscan trade contacts with Greece. Besides taking as evidence the form Menrva/ Menerva in Etruscan, but also Menerva in Italian and Old La…

Achilleus

(2,400 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg)
[English version] [1] Mythos Heros des griech. Mythos (Ἀχιλλεύς, Ἀχιλεύς, etr. Αχλε, lat. Achilles). Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) [English version] A. Etymologie Eine sichere Deutung des Namens des A., der vermutlich vorgriech. Ursprungs ist, steht auch heute noch aus. Ant. Erklärungen differieren: Schol. Il. 1,1 leitet den Namen ab von dem durch A. den Troern (d. h. den “Iliern”) zugefügten “Leid” ( áchos). Eine andere Deutung (z. B. Tzetzes, Lykophr. 178) erklärt den Namen aus χεῖλος (“Lippe”) und α- privativum: A. bedeute “ohne Lippe”, da er nach seiner Geburt durch Feue…

Heracles

(3,370 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἡρακλῆς; Hēraklês). [German version] [1] Greek hero The most prominent Greek hero ( Hero cult) in myth and cult. In his myths, which have not resulted in any outstanding work of poetry that is focussed on him, he is connected especially to Thebes, Argos and the countryside around Trachis; in the cult he is honoured almost panhellenically, without any place being able to display a hero's grave. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) I. Cult and Myth [German version] A. Name His name was connected with  Hera's already in antiquity: it follows the customary formation of Greek anthropo…
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