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Pisatis, Pisa

(362 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισάτις/ Pisátis, Πίσα/ Písa). Region and city or two terms for one region in westernPeloponnesus. The question of the historicity of the city P. is controversial today [1] just as in antiquity (Str. 8,3,31) and often answered in the negative (Str. l.c.). The earliest mention gives the name Πίσα/ Písā (, cf. Pind. Ol. 2,3; 3,9; Pind. Nem. 10,32), in Attic literature Πῖσα/ Pîsa (, Eur. IT 1; Eur. Hel. 386; Hdt. 2,7, with long /i/); the classical ethnikon is always Πισάτης/ Pisátēs (Pind. Ol. 4,11; Eur. IT 824), and since the Hellenistic Period Πισαῖος/ Pisaîos (cf. Paus…

Isthmus

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Ἰσθμός; Isthmós, ὁ ( ho) or ἡ ( )) means primarily any connecting link between two things (e.g. the neck, Pl. Ti. 69e); in a narrower sense, any strip of land between two seas, as i.e. the Thracian Chersonesus [1] (Hdt. 6,36), but especially the I. of Corinth (e.g. Hdt. 8,40; Thuc. 1,13,5; 108,2; 2,9,2; 10,3). This I. corresponds to the fundamental definition in two respects - it links, on the one hand, the Corinthian Gulf with the Saronic Gulf, on the other hand, central Greece with the Peloponnese. The…

Pellana

(254 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] A City of perioeci, northwest of Sparta on the Eurotas This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Πελλάνα/ Pellána, Πελλήνη/ Pellḗnē). A city of perioeci (Perioikoi) north-west of Sparta on the Eurotas (Xen. Hell. 7,5,9; Pol. 3,21,2f.; 4,81,7; 16,37,5; Diod. Sic. 15,67,2; Str. 8,7,5: κώμη/ kṓmē). Its exact location is uncertain: near the modern Vurlia [1. 371] or on the Palaeokastro hill near Castania [2. 125f.] near the modern P. (formerly Kalyvia). According to Plut. Agis 8,1, the land of the Spartans began at …

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Trapezus

(981 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Urarṭu | Christianity | Xenophon | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius | Patricius (Τραπεζοῦς/ Trapezoûs; Lat. Trapezus; the modern Trabzon, Turkey). [German version] I. Geographical Situation A Greek city in the region of Colchis (Xen. An. 4,8,22; 5,3,2) on the southeast coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), situated in a favourable setting with a secure acropolis. T. may have been first founded as early as 756 BC (…

Sabelli

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] S. is not, as Strabo's source ( cf.  Str. 5,4,12) implies, a diminutive of Sabini , but is derived from the same root as Samnites , and from the time of Varro onwards is a term for them. For the modern linguistic use of S., see Oscan-Umbrian. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. T. Salmon, Samnium and the Samnites, 1967.

Teuthrania

(163 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τευθρανία; Teuthranía). Region or its capital in the Mysian valley of the lower Caicus [1]. The name is derived from Teuthras, who reportedly took in Auge [2] and her son Telephus [1] as guests when they were washed ashore in Mysia. The region is generally located from the Aeolian coast between Atarneus and Cisthene (at modern Gömeç) inland about as far up as the upper Macestus. The site of the city (Str. 13,1,69; Plin. HN 5,126) has been located (though without certainty) near mo…

Fretum Siculum

(88 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Strait of Messina between Caenus and Pelorum, 12 stadia (Plin. HN 3,73) or 1,500 passus (Plin. HN 3,86), today 3 km wide, a rift valley, with frequent earthquakes, characterized by fluctuating tidal currents that result in dreaded whirlpools (cf. the myth of  Scylla and Charybdis). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 50f. P. Radici Colace (ed.), Mito, Scienza e Mare: Animali fantastici, mostri e pesci del Mediterraneo (Meeting, …

Nasi

(328 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] I. Greece (Νᾶσοι/ Nâsoi). [German version] [I 1] Lowlands in the area of Caphyae in Arcadia Lowlands in the area of Caphyae in Arcadia (Arcadians), to the south of and below the modern village of Daras (known as Dara until 1940), with luxuriant vegetation, as the water of the upper Orchomenian Plain reemerges here in several springs forming the stream Tragus, which flows into the Ladon [2] (Paus. 8,23,2; 8). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. N. (1), RE 16, 1793  Ders., Peleponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 31f., 34, Taf. XI. Pr…

Zama

(397 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Z. Regia City in Africa Proconsularis This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Punic Wars City in Africa proconsularis, probably modern Seba Biar [1. 416 f.; 2. 321-326; 3. 325 f.; 4; 5. 251 f.; 6. 42 f.]. It was near Z. - at Naraggara - that the decisive battle between Hannibal [4] and P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio was fought in 202 BC [1. 417-420] (Punic Wars II). In the war with Iugurtha (111-105 BC), Z. was attacked by Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 56 f.). No later tha…

Elaver

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern Allier, source at 1,430 m elevation on Mont Lozère; flows from the left side into the Liger below Noviodunum after a course of 375 km (Caes. B Gall. 7,34,2; 35,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Neocaesarea

(605 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Νεοκαισάρεια/ Neokaisáreia, Lat. Neocaesarea). [German version] [1] Town in Pontos This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Limes | Rome | Rome A town in Pontus at the southern foot of the Paryadres near present-day Niksar, at the junction of the east-west route from the Amnias valley and up the Lycus valley via the Comana Pontica [2]-Polemonium road [4; 5; 6.Vol. 1, 17-57]; it is mentioned for the first time in Plin. HN. 6,8. N.'s history is traceable vi…

Tyndaris

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Τυνδαρίς/ Tyndarís). Greek city on the northern coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Agathyrnon, modern Tíndari. T. was founded in 396 BC by Dionysius [1] I to protect the Greeks against Carthage. It was settled mainly by Messenians, who, driven from Naupactus and Zacynthos after the Peloponnesian War, had offered their services to the tyrant and named the city after the Tyndaridae, a Messenian version of the D…

Neda

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Νέδα; Néda). A river in the western Peloponnese which in historical times formed the border between Triphylia (later Elis) and Messana [2]. Although its main source is close to Hagios Sostis, it actually rises on Mt. Lycaeum, then, after a distance of 37 km, it flows into the Gulf of  Cyparissia. The N. is a raging torrent with many waterfalls which rushes through a narrow, rugged, for the most part, inaccessible valley. The fortress of Hira was situated in the mountainous region …

Arcathias

(110 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀρκαθίας; Arkathías). Son of  Mithridates VI (different from Ariarathes IX [1; 2; 3]), led 10,000 horsemen from Lesser Armenia into the opening battle of the Mithridatic Wars (autumn of 89 BC) at the Amnias against  Nicomedes IV; he marched with a Pontic army in 88/87 BC through Macedonia and organized the conquered territories into  satrapies. He fell ill at the Tisaeum in Magnesia and died (App. Mith. 63-65; 137; 156). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Magie, 1105 note 41 2 B.C. McGing, The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator King of Pont…

Nacolea

(360 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Wörrle, Michael (Munich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Education / Culture (Νακόλεια; Nakóleia). City in northeastern Phrygia (Phryges; Str. 12,8,12: in Phrygia Epictetus; Ptol. 5,2,22: in Phrygia Megale) on the river Parthenius (modern river Seydi), modern Seyitgazi. The earliest evidence (Str. loc. cit.) is no later than the time of Augustus, historical notes are provided by Amm. Marc. 26,9,7-9 (defeat of Procopius in a battle with Valens at N. in AD 366) and Philostorgius in 138 (rebellion…

Naxos

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Island and city in the Cyclades This item can be found on the following maps: Ionic | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Νάξος, Náxos, Latin Naxus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Geography City and island of the same name, the latter, with an area of just 420 km2, the largest of the Cyclades. A significant topographical  characteristic is a chain of mountains dividing the island from north to south (highest peak the Zia at 1004 m, also the highest poi…

Laodicea

(1,011 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Belke, Klaus (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λαοδίκεια; Laodíkeia). [German version] [1] Port-town in north-west Syria, modern Latakia This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Λ. ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ; L. epì têi thalássēi). Port in north-west Syria (now Latakia or al-Lāḏiqīya), not far from the Bronze Age Ugarit (Ra's Šamra). Founded by Seleucus I around 300 BC together with its sister towns of Antioch, Apamea and Seleucea (the so-called North Syrian Tetrapolis) and equipped with an…

Heraeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἥραιον; Hḗraion). The outermost cape (today Cape Melangavi) of the peninsula that is formed by the foothills of the Geraneia opposite Corinth with a settlement, fort and sanctuary of Hera Akraia and Limenia (rich finds from the 9th cent. BC onwards) on a small bay on the south side of the cape (Xen. Hell. 4,5,5ff.; Xen. Ages. 2,18f.; Str. 8,6,22; Plut. Cleomenes 20,3; Liv. 32,23,10). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography H. Payne et al. (ed.), The Sanctuaries of Hera Akraia and Limenia, 2 vols., 1940/1962.

Zerbis

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name given in Plin. HN 6,118 to a left-bank tributary of the Tigris in Adiabene. It remains questionable whether he meant the Lycus [14] (modern Al-Zāb al-Kabīr, 'Greater Zab') or the Caprus [2] (modern Al-Zāb al-Ṣaġīr, 'Lesser Zab'). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Niphates

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νιφάτης/ Niphátēs). Mountain range on the Thospitis Limne (Van Gölü) in Armenia, belonging to the eastern Taurus massif (Doğu Toros Dağları) (Str. 11,12,4; 11,13,3; 14,2; 8; Plin. HN 5,27; Mela 1,15,81; Plut. Alexandros 31,10; Ptol. 5,13,4; 6,1,1; Amm. Marc. 23,6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. N.; cf. Hor. Carm. 2,9,20; Verg. G. 3,30; Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,2,4) - in a narrower sense probably İhtiyarşahap Dağları with Mevzi Dağı (3446 m) in the south of Van Gölü or Ala Dağları with Tendürek Dağı (3533 m) in the north-east of Van Gölü. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Sy…

Stadiasmos

(188 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (σταδιασμός/ stadiasmós) is the term for distance in stádia (Str. 1,3,2; 4,6; 2,1,17; 4,7; Stadion [1]) analogous to which miliasmós is the term for distance in milia 'miles' (Str. 6,2,1; cf. Eust. ad Hom. Od. 2,133,2: miliasmoû ... ḕ stadiasmoû). Consequently the stadiasmôn epidromḗ (Marcianus, Epit. peripli Menippi 3 = GGM 1,566,23), was an abridgment, made by Timosthenes of Rhodes of his own 10-volume description of harbours (mid-3rd cent. BC), a 'compilation of distance data in stádia' from harbour to harbour. It was not until the 2nd cent. AD that stadiasmos was a…

Cronion

(53 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κρόνιον). A hill with pine growth (123 m) above the Altis in  Olympia with a Cronos cult only attested in literature (priesthood of the Βασίλαι/ Basílai): Xen. Hell. 7,4,14; Pind. Ol. 1,111; 5,17; 6,64; 9,3; Paus. 5,21,2; 6,19,1; 20,1f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,34,3. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Polemonium

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πολεμώνιον/ Polemṓnion). Port city on the south shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Ptol. 5,6,4; Peripl. m. Eux. 30-33; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.; Plin. HN 6,11; Tab. Peut. 10,3; Hierocles, Synekdemos 37) at the modern Bolaman, 10 km west of Fatsa, where the Sidenus (Str. 1,3,7; 2,5,25; 3,3,14-16; modern Bolaman Irmağı) flows into a broad bay. Named after Polemon [4] I (37-7 BC: EM s. v. Πολεμώνιος). The town was probably built on the site of Side, a settlement which was abandoned by Strabo's (12,3,16) time (cf. Amm. Marc. 22,8,16, who emphasizes the Greek tradition of P.). O…

Mare Germanicum

(573 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (North Sea). This shelf sea, a marginal sea of the Atlantic ( Oceanus), assumed its present form in the Jura. In the west, it is separated from the Atlantic by the Straits of Dover, in the north-west, by the line of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. In the east, the Skagerrak separates it from the Baltic Sea ( Mare Suebicum). There are few bordering archipelagos north-west and south-east. The Mare Germanicum (MG) extends over an area of 0.58 million km2, it contains 0.054 km3 of water, its medium depth is around 94 m, its greatest depth is 725 m near Arendal in th…

Labdalum

(95 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Λάβδαλον; Lábdalon). Site at the northern rim of the Epipolai-Plateau of Syracusae, where a fortress was built by the Athenians in 414 BC. This was taken from them by Gylippus shortly after his arrival (Thuc. 6,97,5; 98,2; 7,3,4). Fabricius located it east of Scala Greca, above the descent of the antique roadway Syracusae - Megara from the plateau. Before him, it was thought to lie more to the west. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Fabricius, Das ant. Syrakus (Klio-Beih. 28), 1932, 19f. H.-D. Drögemüller, Syrakus, 1968, 15f., fi…

Asia Minor

(16,327 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Name Strabo was the first to refer to the peninsula of Asia Minor (AM) west of the  Taurus (Str. 2,5,24; 12,1,3; cf. Plin. HN 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) as a single unit by the name of Asia in the narrower sense, as opposed to the continent of Asia. The term of Asia minor in this sense is first used in Oros. 1,2,26 (early 5th cent. AD). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Geography AM is the westernmost part of the Asian continent between 36° and 42° northern latitude, and 26° and 44° eastern longitude, stretching from the Aegean to the Euphrates ( c. 1,200 km), and fro…

Pylae

(411 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Pylae Gadeirides The Straits of Gibralter (Πύλαι Γαδειρίδες; Pýlai Gadeirídes). The Straits of Gibraltar; the sound (saddle depth 286 m), which is about 60 km long and at its narrowest point 13 km wide, lies between the southern tip of the Spanish Peninsula and the continent of Africa, and between the Mediterranean (Mare nostrum) in the east and Oceanus in the west. The ancient names for the straits are based on Gades (Plin. HN 3,3; 5; 74; 4,93: Gaditanum fretum; Plut. Sertorius 8,1: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός/ Gadeiraîos porthmós), on the temple of Heracles in Gades ('…

Gorgopis limne

(99 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γοργῶπις λίμνη; Gorgôpis límnē). In Aesch. Ag. 302, it belongs to the chain of fire signals from Ida to Mycenae between  Cithaeron and Aigiplanktos ( Gerania in the Megaris) and is therefore regarded as identical with the eastern part of the gulf of Corinth, the bay of Eleusis, and several lakes on the Isthmus of Corinth (Limni Vouliagmenis to the west of the Gerania, cf. Xen. Hell. 4,5,6; Limni Psatho to the east of Schinos). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. G. 1), RE 7, 1658f. W. Leiner, Die Signaltechnik der Ant., 1982, 59ff. Philippson/Kirst…

Orestae

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρέσται/ Oréstai). People in the upper Haliacmon valley around Lake Kastoria (Celetron, cf. Liv. 31,40,1-4 [1. 236-239; 3. 163-166; 4. 110-116]). Hecat. FGrH 1 F 107 and Str. 7,7,8 and 9,5,11 (cf. also Thuc. 2,80,6) numbered them among the Molossi or the Epeirotae, Str. 9,5,11 among the Macedones (for a discussion of this contradiction cf. [5]). From the 4th cent. BC under Macedonian rule (a division of O. in Alexander [4] the Great's army in Diod. Sic. 17,57,2). In 196 BC, the O. were declared independent by Rome and organised as a koinón  (Pol. 18,47,6; Liv. 33,34,…

Mygdonia

(367 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μυγδονία; Mygdonía). [German version] [1] Region in northwestern Asia Minor Region in northwestern Asia Minor whose name is derived from the Thracian Mygdones who, like the Doliones and the Mysi (Mysia), migrated to the northwestern part of Asia Minor in the 12th cent. BC. The area in which they settled was bordered at the northwest by the Dascylitis (Δασκυλῖτις, now Kuş Gölü), at the northeast by Apameia [1]; in the southwest their settlements reached to the Mysian Olympus [13] (modern-day Uludağ), in t…

Uspe

(42 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] High-lying fortified chief town of the Sarmatic Siraci on the bank of the Panda [1] in the north of the Caucasus (Tac. Ann. 12,16,3); not located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography D. D. Kacharava, G. T. Kvirkveliia, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoi epokhi, 1991, 284.

Makaron Nesoi

(326 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(αἱ τῶν μακάρων νῆσοι; hai tôn makárōn nêsoi, Lat. insulae fortunatae, ‘Islands of the blessed'). [German version] [1] Mythical country Since Hes. Op. 167-173, the mythical country to which heroes are transported - instead of to dark, mouldy Hades like ‘normal people’ - when their lives on earth are over. The concept of the makaron nesoi (MN) is closely linked with the idea of Elysium (Hom. Od. 4,561ff.) as the place were the blessed reside after death (cf. Pind. Ol. 2,68-80; Hdt. 3,26; Aristoph. Vesp. 640; Eur. Hel. 1677; Aristot. Protrepticus fr. …

Arginusae

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀργινοῦσ(σ)αι; Arginoû(s)sai). Name of three small islands at the southern entry into the  Lesbos Sound at the Aeolian coast (main island modern Garip Adası), famous because of the naval victory of the Athenians over the Spartans under the leadership of the strategos  Callicratidas, which was followed by the ‘Trial of the Generals of the Arginusae’ (406 BC). In this trial, the Athenians condemned the leading strategoi en bloc, because of their failure to rescue survivors and casualties of the storm which followed the battle.  Socrates was the …

Segesta

(657 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Mennella, Giovanni (Genoa) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages (Σέγεστα/ Ségesta, Ἔγεστα/ É gesta, Αἵγεστα/ Haígesta). City (elevation 318 m) of the Elymi, like Entella and Eryx [1] in the west of Sicily (with map), 10 km to the southwest of Castellammare; the acropolis towers over the city to the northwest on Monte Bàrbaro (431 m). In traditional rivalry with Selinus [4] (earliest verifiable conflict 580/576 BC; Diod. Sic. 5,9), S. opposed Greek occup…

Pirustae

(170 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πειροῦσται/ Peiroûstai). Illyrian tribe (Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,16,8) in the ore-rich region between Lim and Drin in modern Albania, first mentioned in Liv. 45,26,13 in the context of the conclusion of the 3rd Macedonian War, 167 BC, as a civitas libera et immunis. At that time, its relationship with Rome was governed by a treaty. However, in 54 BC the P. undertook excursions into the Roman province of Illyricum for plunder. In reaction, the proconsul of the province, Caesar, restored order in the frontier region by taking h…

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Morgetes

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] People (named after their king Morges) originally settled in Lower Italy, who migrated from there (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 9: M. driven by the Oenotri; otherwise F 2) to Sicily (Strab. 6,2,4), where the city of Morgantina has preserved their name (Antiochus l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μοργέντιον/ Morgéntion). Murgantia, the name of a city of the Samnites, is probably also related (Liv. 10,17,3; 11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 31967  J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 21957  R. Peroni, Enotri, Ausoni,…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

Eupatoria

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius The town established by Mithridates the Great in Pontus at the confluence of the Iris (modern Yeşilırmak) into the Lycus (modern Kelkit Cayı) had without a fight opened the gates to the Romans under Lucullus in 71 BC in the 3rd Mithridatic War; as a result it was totally destroyed by the king four years later. The reconstruction had not yet been completed when Pompey captured E. in 65 BC and, renamed Magnopolis, incorpor…

Orchomenus

(1,667 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in north-western Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Linear B | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Persian Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὀρχομενός/ Orchomenós; Boeotian Ἐρχομενός/ Erchomenós, LSAG 95, no. 17). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) [German version] A. Geography City in north-western Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,511) at the foot of Mount Acontium on the north-western shore of Lake Copais near modern Skripou, today once more called Orkhomenos. The polis had an extensive hinterland, in…

Thymbrium

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Θύμβριον; Thýmbrion). City in eastern Phrygia, 10 parasangai ( Parasángēs ; 57 km) both from Caystru Pedion [2] in the west and Tyriaeium in the east, to be found in the area of modern Doğanhisar to the southeast of Akşehir (Xen. An. 1,2,13; Plin.  HN 5,95: Thymbriani in Lycaonia in the early Imperial period  province of Asia; Hierocles, Synecdemus 673,9: Τιμβριάδων in the late Antiquity  province of Pisidia). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 792 f.

Zabida

(127 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζάβιδα/ Zábida). Village settlement in the centre of a large oasis in the interior of Arabia Felix (Arabia), on the Wādī Zabīd to the northeast of modern Zabīd (in Yemen), mentioned by Uranius [3] in the third book of his Arabiká (in Steph. Byz. s. v. Z.). Z. and its port on the Erythra Thalatta [1] was the starting point of an important trade route into the high mountains through Achoma (modern Aḫum) and Adana (modern Al-Udain) to Tarphara (modern Ẓafār), the chief town of the Homeritae, the Ḥimyar of Arab literature. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Dietric…

Xodrace

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξοδράκη; Xodrákē). City in the western part of India, left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,60), on the southeast border between modern Pakistan and India; not precisely locatable. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2149-2152.

Ossa

(232 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ὄσσα/ Óssa). [German version] [1] Mountain range in central Greece, modern Kissavos Mountain range (1978 m) of lime and slate, divided from Olympus [1] in the north by the erosion gorge that is the Vale of Tempe and from Pelion (modern Kissavos) in the south by the Agia depression. Politically it was part of Magnesia [1]. The steep eastern slopes down to the Aegaean were uninhabited, in spite of a coastal road from Homole in the north to Meliboea [2]. On the western slopes there were Thessalian towns (Elat…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Zaliches

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαλίχης/ Zalíchēs). Coastal city on the coastal river of the same name (Marcianus [1], Epit. Peripl. Menipp. 10: Ζάληκος/ Zálēkos; Peripl. m. Eux. 24; Ptol. 5,4,3: Ζαλίσκος ποταμός/ Zalískos potamós) in Pontus, in late Antiquity one of the seven cities of the consular province of Helenopontus: Σάλτος ( Saltus ) Ζαλίχης/ Sáltos Zalíchēs (Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,6 - an imperial domain?) with the suffragan bishopric of Amasea, now also called Leontoupolis (possibly from the reign of the emperor Leon [4] I, 457-474, onwards; Not. Episc. 1, 240: Ζ. ἤτοι Λεοντούπολις/ Z.…

Mithridatic Wars

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Mithridatic Wars (MW) is the term for the military conflicts between Mithridates [6] VI Eupator, the ruler of the kingdom of Pontus, and Rome. The wars each originated in Mithridates' attempts to expand his domain in the manner of the Diadochi in Asia Minor and constantly led to conflicts with Rome, which did not wish to permit a concentration of power in the region. [German version] A. The First Mithridatic War (89-85 BC) It was out of the attempt by Mithridates after the death of Nicomedes [4] III (94) to pass over the legitimate successor, enthrone Nicomedes' brot…

Bosporus

(736 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
(Βόσπορος; Bósporos). [German version] [1] Early link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean In Turkish, İstanbul Boğazi or Boğaziçi. There is debate over the B.'s geological genesis: the lack of marine fossils argues for it to have originated from a valley floor, while marine biological evidence suggests an early link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean (Izmit -- Sapanca Gölü -- Sakarya), from which the masses of water were pushed back, by the silt build-up, to the depression of the B. The B. is the source of saltwater for the Black Sea (average influx per annum 193 km3); 31.7 k…

Philomelium

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Φιλομήλιον; Philomḗlion). City in southern Phrygia, in the valley of the Gallus [1] (coins: HN 683), on the road leading east from Ephesus at the crossroads to Dorylaeum and Caesarea (Str. 11,6,1; 12,8,14; Ptol. 5,2,25; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φιλομήλειον; Cic. Verr. 2,3,191; MAMA 7,38-42). It was founded in the 3rd cent. BC by a Macedonian dynast named Philomelus (Lit. in [1. 131317]). At the time of Cicero's proconsulship, P. was part of the province of Cilicia (Cic. Fam. 3,8,5f.; 1…

Pleraei

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πληραῖοι; Plēraîoi). Illyrian people, whose area of settlement on the Ionios Kolpos stretched from the left bank at the mouth of the  Naro and from Corcyra Melaina to Risinium (Strab. 7,5,5; 7; Mela 2,3,56f.; Plin. HN 3,144; cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Πλαραῖοι, who also has the form Πλάριοι). Like the neighbouring Ardiaei, they were notorious pirates (Piracy). In 135 BC they were subjugated by the Romans (App. Ill. 29: Παλάριοι). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, The Kingdoms in Illyria circa 400-167 BC, in: ABSA 61, 1966, 239-253  G. Alföldy, A. Mó…

Lebedus

(176 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Λέβεδος; Lébedos). A harbour town founded by Ionians in the area settled by Carians (Paus. 7,3,2; formerly Ἄρτις/ Ártis, Str. 14,1,3 Hecat. FGrH 1 F 219; Hdt. 1,142), member of the Delian League, surrendered by Lysimachus in favour of Ephesus (Paus. 1,9,7), refounded in 266 BC by Ptolemy II as Ptolemaïs; but the name L. was soon revived again. In the 2nd cent. BC, seat of the Artists of Dionysus ( technítai ), who were originally located in Teos. If - on the basis of Hor.…

Traianopolis

(254 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Τραιανόπολις; Traianópolis). [German version] [1] City in the Hebrus plain This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Thraci, Thracia | Rome Founded by Traianus [1] at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD on the northern coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea) in the plain of the lower Hebrus on the site of Doriscus on the via Egnatia (Ptol. 3,11,13; It. Ant. 175,1-9), modern Loutrós. Minting of its own coins is documented. After Diocletianus' administrative reform, T. was one of the most important cities in the province of Rho…

Pontos Euxeinos

(3,083 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Boroffka, Nikolaus
[German version] I. Geography (Πόντος Εὔξεινος; Póntos Eúxeinos), modern Black Sea. The ancient description may trace back to the Iranians, who described the sea as achshaenas, 'dark'; transcription into Greek gives áxeinos 'inhospitable'(cf. Ov. Tr. 4,4,55), a description which was euphemistically reinterpreted by sailors as eúxeinos, 'hospitable'; the Greeks also knew the PE as the 'Black Sea' (Eur. Iph. T. 107: πόντος μέλας; póntos mélas). The PE, a subsidiary sea of the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum), extends, including Lake Maeotis, over an area of about 450,000 km2 (extent …

Tanager

(51 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tributary of the Silarus, modern Torrente Tanagro in Lucania (Verg. Georg. 3,151 and Serv.: siccus T.; Plin.  HN 2,225 without giving a name; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ad Tanarum, the station at the river crossing:  It. Ant. 109,5). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Philipp, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2153.

Eurotas

(200 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Εὐρώτας; Eyrṓtas, ‘the abundantly-flowing’). The 82 km-long river (mythological derivation from king E. in Paus. 3,1,1f.) rises with its source-streams on the flat valley-watershed of the Alpheius between Mt. Parnon and Mt. Taygetus on the Asea plain, and in the north-western foothills of the Arcadian Mt. Parnon (the presumption of subterranean links in the region of its source between the E. and Lake Taka, made in Paus. 8,44,4, is improbable), and, following a tectonic depression (‘the E. trough’), enters the 18 km-long and c. 10 km-wide Laconian basin north o…

Philadelphia

(469 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φιλαδέλφεια/ Philadélpheia). [German version] [1] Lydian town founded by Seleucus I This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture Lydian town founded by Seleucus I (cf. SEG 35, 1985, 1170 [2. 180139; 3. no. 20]) or by Attalus [5] II Philadelphos (who definitely gave the town its name). It lay at the northeast foot of Mt. Tmolus in the fertile valley of the river Cogamis (cf. the coins in HN 655, present-day Alaşehir Çayı), a southern tributary of the Hermus, in southern Catacecaumene [1] on the …

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Netum

(172 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νέητον, Νεαίτιον/ Néēton, Neaítion; Latin Netum). City of the Siculi in the southeastern part of Sicilia (Plin. HN 3,91: Netini; Ptol. 3,4,13), modern-day Noto Antica, located on the upper course of the Asinaro on a steep, heart-shaped bluff (420 m high), 16 km to the northwest of Noto. At the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 263 BC N. was awarded by Rome to the kingdom of Syracuse (Diod. 23,4,1: Νεαιτῖνοι; StV 3, No. 479). As part of the Roman province, N. was one of the favoured municipalities ( civitates foederatae) and expressly exempted from providing grain shipments ( cu…

Pyrgi

(667 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). [German version] [1] Port of Caere This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Phoenicians, Poeni (Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). Probably the most frequented port of ancient Caere, near modern Santa Severa. Literary evidence points to a sanctuary to Eileithyia (Str. 5,2,8) or Leucothea (Ps.-Aristot. Lin. insec. 2,1349b;  Ael. VH 1,20;  Polyaenus, Strat. 5,2,21) there, possibly identical to the remains excavated mid 20th cent. near a bay on the Tyrrhenian coast: a témenos (holy district) with two archaic temples (single cel…

Polichne

(171 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Πολίχνη; Políchnē). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Olympieum in the SW of Syracusae Settlement in the Olympieum, a sanctuary of Zeus on the right bank of the Anapus in the south west of Syracusae, where in 414 BC Gylippus stationed part of his cavalry to hamper the Athenians on the Plemmyrium from foraging in the Syracusan hinterland (Thuc. 7,4,7; Diod. Sic. 13,7,5; cf. [1. 41, 4110]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H.-P. Drögemüller, Syrakus (Gymnasium Beiheft 6), 1969. [German version] [2] Town in NW Crete This item can be found on the following maps: Crete Town …

Prophthasia

(105 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Προφθασία/ Prophthasía, Str. 11,8,9; 15,2,8; Ptol. 6,19,4; 8,25,8 N.; Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 16 = GGM 1,253: Φρά/ Phrá in Ἀναύων χώρα/ Anaúōn chṓra that is otherwise unknown; Plin. HN 6,61: P.). Possibly the city of Φράδα/ Phráda (Charax of Pergamum FGrH 103 F 20) renamed in this way by Alexander [4] the Great probably in 330 BC in the region of Drangiana, generally identified with modern Farāh in Afghanistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. …

Zakoria

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Station on the Pontic coast road (Arr. Per. p. E. 21: Ζάγωρα/ Zágōra; Tab. Peut. 10,1; Geogr. Rav. 2,17: Agoria; 5,10: Z.; Guido, Geographica 101) from Sinope to Trapezus between Gurzubathon (modern Kurzuvet) and Zaliches (at modern Alaçam), presumably at modern Çayağzı at the mouth of the Aksu. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caecinus

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καικῖνος; Kaikînos). According to Paus. 6,6,4, the C. is the border river between  Locri and Rhegium, where the Athenians under  Laches [1] defeated the Locrians under Proxenus (Thuc. 3,103,3) in what is today Amendolea/Sicily. The Locrian fist fighter Euthymus was worshipped at a hero-shrine and regarded as the son of the river god C. (Ael. VH 8,18). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Laevi

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian (Liv. 5,25,2; Plin. HN 3,124) or Celtic (Cato in Plin. l.c.; Λάοι, Pol. 2,17,4) tribe which founded the city of Ticinum (modern Pavia), together with the Matrici; Ticinum later fell under the rule of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 179.

Tegianum

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (modern Teggiano). City in Lucania (Lucani) on the left bank of the Tanager (modern Tanagro) on the via Popilia from Consentia to Aquilonia [1] (Plin. HN 3,98: Tergilani = Tegianenses?; Liber Coloniarum 209). Municipium , which under Nero [1] was elevated to a colonia, tribus Pomptina. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography V. Bracco, Nuove scoperte archeologiche in Lucania, in: RAL 20, 1965, 283 f.

Cotyora

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius (Κοτύωρα; Kotýōra). Port town on the south coast of  Pontus Euxinus, assumed to be near Ordu, where remains of an ancient harbour pier are located. The ‘Ten Thousand’ of  Xenophon rested there for 45 days before they took to the sea in the west. Under Pharnaces I (185-160/154 BC), C. was united in a synoikismós with Cerasus in Pharnacaea and declined to a small town (πολίχνη, Str. 12,3,17) (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 24; Peripl. m. Eux. 34). Olshausen, Eckart (S…

Ximene

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξιμήνη; Ximḗnē). Region in the territory of Amasea, which in the south of Diacopene and Pimolisene "reaches as far as the river Halys... In X. there are salt mines, from which the Halys, it is surmised, took its name" (Str. 12,3,39). According to the sequence of mentions in  Str. loc.cit. the X. is to be looked for in the area between Çorum and the River Kızılırmak. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 174 (with map A 3).

Istros

(32 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴστρος; Ístros). Island documented by Steph. Byz. s.v. I. with homonymous city at the promontory of Triopium (modern Deveboynu Burnu or Kıriyo Burnu) near Cnidus. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Clepsydra

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κλεψύδρα; Klepsýdra). [German version] [1] Spring near Messene Spring from which the well named after Arsinoe, the mother of Asclepius, in the agora in Messene was fed (Paus. 4,31,6; 33,1), possibly corresponds to the village spring in Mavromati or a spring below Ithome peak ( Ithome [1]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messene, RE Suppl. 15, 142ff. D. Musti, M. Torelli, Pausania. Guida della Grecia 4, 1991, 252ff. [German version] [2] Spring of the Acropolis of Athens Since the Neolithic period the most important spring of the Acropolis of …

Temnus

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τῆμνος/ Têmnos, Aeolic Τᾶμνος/ Tâmnos). Aeolian city to the southeast of Dumanlı Hill on the right bank of the Hermus [2], where in Antiquity the river flowed into the Aegean (Plin. HN 5,119); its ruins (fortress of Nemrut) are at modern Görece. Although not a member of the Delian League, in the 5th and 4th cents. BC T. was able to preserve its independence of the Persian Great King (Xen. Hell. 4,8,15). Apparently, by the end of the 3rd cent. BC T. was under the rule of the Attalids (Attalus; cf. the isopoliteía treaty between T. and Pergamum StV 2, 5…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Pelorias

(222 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πελωριάς; Pelōriás). Northeastern cape of Sicily (Pol. 1,11,6; 42,5; Diod. Sic. 4,23,1; 5,2,2; 23,1,3; Diod. 4,85,5; 14,56,3; 6; 57,2: Πελωρίς/Pelōrís), modern Capo Peloro or Capo di Faro; in a narrower sense a narrow easterly tongue of land, in a broader sense the whole mountainous promontory running northeast. According to myth, Orion [1] constructed the tongue of land and built a temple to Poseidon there (Hes. fr. 183). According to erroneous ancient ideas about the orientation…

Motyca

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυκα, Μότουκα; Mótyka, Mόtouka). City of the Siculi in the southeast of Sicily (Ptol. 3,4,14), modern Módica to the south of Ragusa. Finds from as early as the prehistorical period. Ancient inscriptions from the area (IG XIV 243-253). The ager Mutycensis was the ager decumanus of the Roman province of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101; 120), the Mutycenses were stipendiarii (Plin. HN 3,91). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. M., RE 16, 407  BTCGI 10, 169-177  Morgantina Studies, 5 vols., 1981-1996.

Sebastopolis

(180 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Σεβαστόπολις; Sebastópolis). [German version] [1] City in Caria City in the mountainous country of southeastern Caria between Tabae and Themisonium on the road from Heraclea [6] and Apollonia Salbace to Cibyra, at modern Kızılca. The original place name is unknown; in the Imperial period the city was renamed S. and is recorded in inscriptions and on coins (HN 624; [1. 150 f.]). In literature it is first mentioned in the early Byzantine period (Hierocles, Synékdēmos 689). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinasiatische Münzen, 1901/2. L. Bürchner,…

Melanthium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River flowing into the Pontos Euxeinos to the east of Ordu, modern Melet Irmağı (Plin. HN 6,11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Dioptra

(376 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Werner (Graz)
[German version] (ἡ διόπτρα; hē dióptra). Surveyor's instrument for measuring angles and distances or the lateral width of distant objects (e.g. the apparent distance of stars from one another and the height of walls and mountains). The applications included the construction of aqueducts, house-building or fire-telegraphy (cf. Pol. 8,37,2; 9,19,8f.). At the beginning of his work entitled D., which covers the theory and practice of surveying and mapping (πραγματεία διοπτρική), Hero of Alexandria (1st cent. AD?) documented in detail the construction and…

Buphagus

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βουφάγος; Bouphágos). Right-hand tributary of the Alpheius [1], rising in the north of Buphagium (city wall and other remains near Paliokastro; its source marked the border between Heraea and Megalopolis. The eponymous hero B., son of the Titan  Iapetus, was killed by Artemis in the Pholoe region (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,26,8; 8,27,17). Buthoinas appears, meaning the same as B., as an approximation of Hercules in Lindus (cf. Anth. Plan. 123). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 103ff.

Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f…

Aristion

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀριστίων; Aristíōn). [German version] [1] Epicurean philosopher, ' Tyrant' of Athens (88-86 BC) Epicurean philosopher, who, in 88 BC, became very influential in Athens with the help of  Mithridates VI (‘Tyrant’). In order to win the Greeks over to Mithridates, A. supported  Archelaus, e.g. in the battle against the proquaestor Q. Braetius Sura at  Chaeronea. In the spring of 87 BC, he retreated from  Sulla back to Athens. The city fell on 1 March 86 BC; A. managed to hold out on the Acropolis for a short w…

Duranus

(43 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern-day Dordogne; rises at 1680 m. on the Puy de Sancy (Mont-Dore), and after a course of 490 km flows into the Atlantic with the Garumna to its left (Auson. Mos. 464; Geogr. Rav. 4,40). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Plutarchus

(7,856 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pelling, C. B. R. (Oxford) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Πλούταρχος/ Ploútarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1]. As the guest-friend of Meidias [2], the rich opponent of Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 21,110; 21,200), he turned to Athens for help in 349 BC when the exiled Cleitarchus [1] and Callias [9] of Chalcis, supported by Phalaecus of Phocis and Philippus [4] II, threatened his position (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with schol.). Phocion led the inglorious and expensive expedition in early 348 BC (Dem. Or. 5,5 with schol.; …

Orcistus

(113 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρκιστός/ Orkistós). Originally probably a polis in Galatia, south of modern Ortaköy (formerly Alikel Yayla), added to Nacolea (Phrygia) at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, but Constantine [1] the Great undid this before 331 AD (MAMA 7, 69-75). The small town of Malcaeteni [1. 2020] was part of the territory of O. Attested as a see from the 5th cent. (Domnus at the Council of Ephesus in 431, Longinus at the Council of Chalcedon in 451: Acta Conciliorum Oecumenocorum 1,1 no. 121; 2,1,1 no. 192). A few ancient or Byzantine remains. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography T. Dr…

Naustathmus

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ναύσταθμος; Naústathmos). [German version] [1] Harbour town in the south east of Sicily Harbour town in the south east of Sicily, on the coast between Syracusae and the mouth of the Helorus [2] (Plin. HN 3,89), probably at Fontane Bianche. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 58. [German version] [2] Harbour in the north eastern Cyrenaica Harbour in north eastern Cyrenaica, on the eastern side of the promontory of the same name (modern Ras el-Hilal). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM 1,83); S…

Nemea

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Νεμέα; Neméa). [German version] [1] Nymph after whom Nemea [2,3] was named Nymph, after whom N. [2,3] was named, daughter of the river god Asopus and Metope (Paus. 2,15,3; schol. Pind. Ol. 6,144 Dr.) or of Zeus and Selene (hypothesis c on Pind. Nem.); mother of Opheltes (Aesch. TrGF 3 F *149a). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of a river, a basin and a sacred grove This item can be found on the following maps: Athletes | Education / Culture (Νεμέα; etymological meaning ‘pasture’; other etymology possibly after a nymph N. in Paus. 2,15,3). Name of: 1) a river whi…

Pharaea

(74 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαραία, Φηραία; Pharaía, Phēraía). Settlement in north western Arcadia (Pol. 4,77,5; Str. 8,3,32), no more precisely identifiable. Possibly at the modern Lambia, or rather the ancient site at present-day Nemuta on the eastern slopes of the Oros Pholoï. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 35-37  E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88  F. Bölte, s.v. Ph. (1), RE 19, 1809f.

Saltus Manlianus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The narrow passage of Puerto de Morata in the Sierra de Vicor, south-west of Zaragoza, probably named after the praetor P. Manlius [I 5], who passed through there in 195 BC during the conquest of Hispania citerior under the supreme command of the consul Cato [1] (Liv. 40,39,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 166  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 146 f.

Prinus

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρῖνος; Prînos). 1210 m high pass (διὰ Πρίνου καλουμένης: Paus. 8,6,4) leading from Argos [II 1] to Mantinea over Mount Artemisium [2], to the north of the main peak (modern Malevo). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. P., RE 22, 2314 f.  Pritchett 3, 32-46.

Prinkipos

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρίγκιπος/ Prínkipos). Δημόνησοι/ Dēmónēsoi (Hesych. s. v. Δημονήσιος χαλκός) or Πριγκίπιοι νῆσοι/ Prinkípioi nêsoi (Synaxiarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae 158,26 Delehaye) is the description by which an archipelago of nine islands in the northern Propontis is known in the Byzantine literature of Late Antiquity: (from north to south) Prota (modern Kınalı ada), Orea (modern Sivri ada), Panormus (later Antigone, modern Burgaz adası), Pita (modern Kaşık adası), Chalce (modern Heybeli adası),…

Phocaeae

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φωκαῖαι/ Phokaîai). Unidentified quarter (χωρίον/ chōríon) of the city of Leontini. Some aristocrats from Leontini, who had gone away and settled in Syracuse (Syracusae) but then left again because of  conflicts, withdrew to Ph. and the nearby fortress of Bricinniae in 422 BC. Many of the democrats previously driven out of Leontini also soon gathered here in order to take up the fight with Syracuse (Thuc. 5,4,4). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 218.

Dahae

(242 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δάαι; Dáai, Δάοι; Dáoi; Latin: Dahae) The D. were a nomadic tribe in Persis; according to Strabo, they were originally one of the Scythian tribes in the region by the Caspian Sea (Str. 11,8,2; 11,9,2f.). Like the Mardi, Dropici and Sagartii, the D. are mentioned by Herodotus in connection with the revolt of Cyrus II against Astyages in 550 BC (Hdt. 1,125,4); in the Persepolis Inscription they are called Daha. The D. fought under Darius ─ and, after his death, under Spitamenes ─ against  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. An. 3,11,3; 3,28,10; Curt. 4,12…

Pholoe

(140 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Φολόη/ Pholóē). The monotonous conglomerate surface, some 11 km long and 8 km wide  to the north of the middle reaches of the Alpheius [1], up to 798 m high in the north, 640 m in the south, to the east with a steep edge merging with the Erymanthus [2] mountains, to the west with lowish ranges of marl hills (Strab. 8,3,1; 3,5; 3,32; 8,3; Paus. 6,21,5; 8,24,4 ; Ptol. 3,14,35 ; Mela 2,43; Plin. HN 4,21), modern Pholoi Oros. P. is unsettled and poor in springs, today covered with oak…

Cyllene

(244 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυλλήνη; Kyllénḗ). [German version] [1] Mountain range in Arcadia The northernmost mountain range in Arcadia in the border area stretching to Achaea, the second highest (Ziria, 2,374 m) of the Peloponnese, a limestone ridge that ends on all sides with the surrounding chain of mountains. The ancient authors considered C. to be the highest mountain range in the Peloponnese (Str. 8,8,1; Paus. 8,17,1). C. was sacred to  Hermes Cyllenius. He is said to have been born here in a cave and to have accomplished d…

Naro

(254 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νάρων; Nár ōn). River in Dalmatia (Dalmates; Strab. 7,5,5; 9; Mela 2,57: Nar; Tab. Peut. 6,4 without name), modern Neretva (in Hercegovina). It rises on the Dumos Planina (1879 m high), passes through the karst mountains in a deeply incised gorge, forms - after a course of 230 km - a swampy delta and flows into the Adriatic. In antiquity the N. flowed into the sea farther to the northwest than today. In its original bed the Norino, which used to join the N. after a much shorter course furthe…

Amisus

(348 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Caesar | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius (Ἀμισός; Amisós). Harbour town on the Pontic Black Sea coast, on the Kara Samsun peninsula (north-western suburb of the modern Samsun), not yet systematically excavated (prohibited military zone). Just like  Trapezus, A. was located at the northern end of an old trade route, which led, at a height of only 900m, across the northern Pontic mountains to  Amasea and on to  Cap…

Zeleia

(120 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ζέλεια; Zéleia). City in the valley of the Aesepus (Hom. Il. 2,824f.; 4,91; 4,103; 4,121; Str. 12,4,6; 12,8,11) in the territory of Cyzicus in Mysia, near modern Sarıköy. Homer (loc. cit.) describes Z. as the home city of Pandarus [1] and the latter as belonging to the Lycii; for this reason ancient commentators (cf. schol. Hom. Il. 2,826f.) assumed two regions with the name Lycia – one in the southwest of Asia Minor (Lycii, Lycia), the …

Ager Caletranus

(36 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Region around the Etruscan town of Caletra, ruins near Marsiliana d'Albegna north of Orbetello (cf. Plin. HN 3,52; Liv. 39,55). Foundation of the colonia Saturnia in 183 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Periegetes, Perihegetes

(265 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (περιηγήτης/ perihēg ḗtēs, guide to strangers’). The periegetes was primarily a tourist institution, an insight into whose activities is provided by Plutarch (Plut. Mor. 395a; 396c; 397d; 400d; 400f; 401e). This gave rise to the antiquarian genre of peri(h)ḗgēsis, particularly popular during the Hellenistic period, in which the guiding of strangers by a periegetes took on a literary form in prose or verse; closely related to this was the travel story, i.e. the account of an actual journey, which could be used by others as a travel guide (e.g. Pe…
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