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Chauci

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Warlike Germanic seafaring tribe (etymologically related to the Gothic háuhs, Old High German hôh- ‘high’; Str. 7,1,3; idealized in Tac. Germ. 35). The C. lived north of the Angrivarii on the North Sea coast, on both banks of the lower Weser, and were divided into the ‘lesser’ and the ‘greater’ C. (Tac. Ann. 11,19,2; Ptol. 2,11,7; 9; Plin. HN 16,2-5). They were fought by Drusus and subjected to Roman rule in AD 5; despite a Roman occupational force and the fact that they had to supply auxiliar…

Batavis

(295 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Today, the historic centre of Passau. The name was recorded rather late (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,24; Eugippius, Vita Severinus 19,1; 22,4; 24,1; 27,1; Batavini: ibid. 20,1; 22,1; 27,3). Located in  Raetia, across from Boiodurum/Innstadt in Noricum. A late Celtic oppidum between the Danube and the Inn was discontinued c. 100 years before the Roman settlement. The Roman settlement was quite dense since late Flavian times, but not yet clearly organized: the narrow, rectangular houses bel…

Decumates agri

(603 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Problematic expression, attested only in Tac. Germ. 29,3: Tacitus does not count those peoples settled beyond the Rhine and Danube as belonging to the Germanic peoples, saying eos qui decumates agros exercent: levissimus quisque Gallorum et inopia audax dubiae possessionis solum occupavere; mox limite acto promotisque praesidiis sinus imperii et pars provinciae habentur. The partly fanciful discussion of this quotation, difficult as it is on linguistic and factual grounds, is as wide-ranging as it is fruitless. If decumates is generally viewed as an adject…

Bructeri

(173 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe; uncertain etymology of the name; they were divided into the ‘small’ and the ‘large’ B. (Str. 7,1,3f.; Ptol. 2,11,6f.; 9) and settled between IJssel, Lippe and the upper reaches of the Ems, or rather between the upper reaches of the Ems and the Weser. Defeated by  Drusus in 12 BC, they took part in the fight against  Varus, and, with their seer  Veleda, were involved in the  Batavian revolt. After AD 98, they were decimated by the Chamavi and Angrivarii and driven away (Tac. Germ. 33,1). Later, Bructuri appear on the right bank of the Rhine between Colo…

Chattuarii

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people; on the basis of etymology inhabitants of a former Chattian territory; possibly to be identified with the  Chasuarii. As neighbours of the Bructeri and the Cherusci counted as the ‘weaker’ inland peoples (Str. 7,1,3f.; Vell. Pat. 2,105,1); possibly to be identified with the Attuarii, who show up in the 4th cent. as part of a Frankish confederacy (Amm. Marc. 20,10,2); during the Middle Ages the C. are settled from the lower Ruhr and Lippe to the left bank of the Rhine.  Chatti;  Francs Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. Cha…

Lentienses

(65 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Sub-tribe ( pagus) of the Alamanni north of Lake Constance (cf. the later Linzgau). Directed against them in AD 355 was punitive action of the magister equitum Arbetio and a victorious campaign of Gratianus in 378 (Amm. Marc. 15,4; 31,10,1-17). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography R. Rollinger, Zum Alamannenfeldzug Constantius' II. an Bodensee und Rhein im J. 355 n.Chr., in: Klio 80, 1998, 163-194.

Clarenna

(40 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Statio between Ad Lunam and Grinario (Tab. Peut. 4,1), possibly the late Flavian garrison Donnstetten-Römerstein, which continued after about 150 into the 3rd cent. as a civilian settlement. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography J. Heiligmann, Der ‘Alb-Limes’, 1990, 80-87.

Flevum

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic name (‘the flooding, streaming [body of water]’) for the most northerly branch of the delta of the Rhine: Plin. HN 4,101 ( Flevum ostium); Mela 3,24 ( lacus Flevo, formerly Zuidersee, modern IJsselmeer); cf. Ptol. 2,11,12. Tac. Ann. 4,72,3 mentions a Roman castellum Flevum besieged by Frisii in AD 28, the locality of which is pinpointed in Velsen [1]. It is debatable whether the Flevi in the Laterculus Veronensis 13 are derived from F. [2; 3].  Rhenus Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J.-M. A. W. Morel, A. V. A. J. Bosman, Velsen-Noord Spaarndamm…

Marcomanni

(1,393 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic tribe belonging to the Suebi (border people [26. 161f.]) that was probably forced from the middle Elbe region into the upper and middle Main region by the migrations of the Cimbri and Teutoni. The M. supplied mercenaries: from 72 BC for the Sequani in their war against the Haedui, in 60 BC for the Dacians during the destruction of the Boii kingdom in Bohemia, in 58 for Ariovistus against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). Severely defeated by Claudius [II 24] Drusus probabl…

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Herminones

(135 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] H.,  Ingaevones and  Istaevones are Germanic names for the original Germanic tribes traced back to the three sons of Mannus in the ancient mythological ethnogony of the Germans, based on an indigenous core, (Mannus genealogy) that was probably introduced to ancient literature by Posidonius and was gradually expanded under the influence of the Roman discovery of the north (Mela 3,32; Plin. HN 4,99f.; Tac. Germ. 2,2). Ethnically, spatially and socially the myth remains without conte…

Arenacium

(79 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt According to It. Ant. 254,3 and Tab. Peut. 2,4 (H)arenatio, presumably today's Kleve-Rindern. In AD 70/1 winter quarters of the legio X Gemina in the territory of the  Batavi (Tac. Hist. 5,20,1). The auxiliaries' fort in Kleve has not yet been found. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography J. Seibert, s. v. A., RGA 1, 21973, 399 H. G. Horn, Kleve-Rindern, in: Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Nordrhein-Westfalen, 1987, 458.

Abusina

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Modern Eining. Tab. Peut. 4,3 f. Arusena, the modern river Abens. From AD 79/81 cohort fort ( castellum; 1.8 hectares) at the crossing of the Danube. Reduced size fort from about AD 300; the   vicus of the middle imperial period relocated into the fort: its northern extension perhaps a horreum from the second half of the 4th cent. AD. In the field named ‘Unterfeld’ remains of an ephemeral camp ( legio III Italica) from about AD 172/179.  Horrea;  Cohors;  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography A. Faber, Die südgallische Terra Sigilata aus Kastell und …

Aestii

(172 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Aestiorum gentes, Baltic tribes, settled in the region east of the Vistula up to the Western Dvina (Tac. Germ. 45,2: ‘coastal dwellers to the right of the Suebian sea’; in tradition and looks related to the  Suebi, but closer to the  Britanni in language). This ethnic name which etymologically might relate to the river of the name Aistà in the Vilkabikis district was after all possibly Germanic [1]; furthermore, a connection with the Σουδινοί ( Soudinoí) of Ptol. 3,5,9 is postulated. The A. were peaceable (Iord. Get. 5,36) peasants, armed with cudgels…

Harii

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alongside the  Helvecones, Manimi, Halisiones and Nahanarvali, the H. are a powerful branch of the Vandali-Lugii tribe (Tac. Germ. 43,2). The identification with the Charini (Plin. HN 4,99) [1] is uncertain; the old conjecture of reading the hand-written alii (Tac. Germ. 43,4) as ( H) arii must be abandoned. Thus, the conclusions related to the supposed ferialis exercitus (‘army of ghosts’, ‘army of the dead’) of the H. are invalid. [2]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 G. Neumann, s.v. Charini, RGA 4, 371f. 2 A. A. Lund, Kritischer Forsch.-Ber. zur Germa…

Colonia Agrippinensis

(967 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Present-day Cologne, principal city (Tac. Ann. 1,36,1; 37,2; 71,1) of the Ubii who moved from the Neuwieder Becken to settle in the area previously inhabited by the Eburones, following the deditio by Agrippa in 38 BC (Str. 4,3,4; Tac. Ann. 12,27,1; Germ. 28,4). Located on the gravel plain in the area today known as the old town (archaeology dates the oppidum Ubiorum to around the time of the birth of Christ). Oppidum ( Civ…

Bonna

(241 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Modern Bonn. Since 30/20 BC settlement of the  Ubii with an indigenous name; between 16 and 12 BC, it was a mixed Roman garrison, replaced under Emperor Augustus with a legion from 1 BC; the legionary camp was rebuilt after its destruction in AD 70 ( legio I Minervia:  Domitianus -- 4th cent.), as was the canabae, both using half-timbering. The suburb of the camp, which itself had been rebuilt several times, flourished until it was destroyed (and rebuilt) …

Silva Bacenis

(62 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Large forested mountain range forming an intra-Germanic barrier between the Cherusci and the Suebi (Caes. Gall. 6,10,5). Etymologically related to German 'Buche' (= beech), and therefore probably the Harz Mountains (possibly as far as Rhön-Vogelsberg), which as late as the Early Middle Ages was called 'Buchonia'. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann u. a., s. v. Bacenis silva, RGA 1, 572 f.

Antunnacum

(175 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Andernach; crossing-point of important long-distance routes (CIL XVII 2,675; Amm. Marc. 18,2,4) and the Rhine valley road from  Mogontiacum to  Colonia Agrippinensis; near the Roman cohort fort on the ‘Hügelchen’, already manned in the 1st cent. AD, it was a   vicus with harbour facilities for goods from the hinterland (e.g. millstones and industrial stone from the quarries around Mayen). In late antiquity, the vicus being endangered by flooding, an area of some 5.6 hectares was protected by a wall with round, projecting towers, still…

Helvecones

(64 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Aside from the  Harii, Manimi, Halisiones and Nahanarvali, a powerful partial tribe of the Vandali-Lugii (Tac. Germ. 43,2); probably identical to the Elouaíōnes (Ἐλουαίωνες, Ptol. 2,11,9), although they do not have the addition Loûg[i]oi (Λοῦγ[ι]οι) and their location is pinpointed as between Rhoutíkleioi (Ῥουτίκλειοι) and Burgundiones (Βουργοῦντες). In this case they would be the most northerly Lugii. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Boiohaemum

(76 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] ‘Homeland of the Boii’, now Bohemia (sources: Str. 7,1,3; Vell. Pat. 2,109,5; Tac. Germ. 28,2). Although widely abandoned by the Celtic  Boii around 60 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,5,4; cf. Str. 7,1,5; Plin. HN 3,146 deserta Boiorum) and occupied by the  Marcomanni shortly before the end of that cent., the region retained their name. That it gave its name to the  Baiovarii is disputed but quite likely. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,27.

Albis

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Elbe (never the Alb [3], despite [1]) has its source according to Tac. Germ. 41,2 [2. 242 f.] in the territory of the  Hermunduri, according to Ptol. 2,11,1 in the Sudeten, according to Cass. Dio 55,1,3 correctly in the ‘Vandal Mountains’ (Riesengebirge / Krkonoše). Known by the Romans since  Caesar, reached by  Drusus and  Tiberius in 9 and 5 BC, soon crossed by L.  Domitius Ahenobarbus, it was to have become the Germanic border of Rome -- a plan that failed. Therefore known to Tac. (Germ. 41,4) only by ‘hearsay’ ( nunc tantum auditur). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibli…

Cusus

(73 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] River, eastern or western border of the kingdom of Quadian Vannius founded in AD 19 inter Marum (March) et Cusum (Tac. Ann. 2,63,6), mostly identified with the Duria, i.e. with Hron (Gran), Ipel' (Eipel) or -- archaeologically the most probable -- Váh (Waag [1. 186104]). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 H.-W. Böhme, Arch. Zeugnisse zur Gesch. der Markomannenkriege, in: JRGZ 22, 1975, 153-217. TIR M 33,35f. G. Neumann, s.v. C., RGA 5, 112f. Ipel';

Iuvavum

(426 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia | Raeti, Raetia (modern Salzburg). In the territory of the Alauni the developing Roman site of I. (etymology disputed) on the left bank of the Salzach replaced the Celtic hill settlements on the Rainberg, the Festungsberg and the Kapuzinerberg in the later years of Augustus' reign (beginning 1st cent. AD). I. was built at the junction of the northern road along the crest of the Alps from Bregenz (Brigantium) and the long distance road from Aquileia leading over the Radstädter Tauernpass, and was raised to the status of mu…

Durnomagus

(69 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Dormagen. Late Flavian alae fort (3.3 ha) between Cologne and Neuss. Second construction phase in the mid 2nd cent. AD, probably the ala Noricorum (CIL XIII 8523f.); burnt down c. 200, and in c. 275 very briefly occupied. In the north-eastern corner was a reoccupation fort from late antiquity. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography M. Gechter, Das röm. Kavallerielager Dormagen, in: Arch. im Rheinland 1994, 1995, 85-87.

Heruli

(481 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Seafaring East Germanic tribe [1], which at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD was allegedly driven out of Scandinavia by the Danes and split into East and West Heruli. The latter attacked the Romans at the Lower Rhine in 287, were defeated and repeatedly attacked Roman territory from the Dutch-Frisian coast to southern Spain (esp. 456/459). Threatened by the  Franci, they made an effort in 476 to gain the friendship of the  Visigoths. At the beginning of the 6th cent. they are no longer attested. From their home by the Sea of Azov, the much stronger East H. advance…

Ambrones

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe of Helvetia or rather  Noricum (Fest. 17) or a tribe of German origin, possibly linked with the island of Amrum: the etymology of Ambr-names is unproductive (cf. [1. 606] for a possible Ligurian component). The A., together with the Helvetii and the Teutoni, threatened Italy from southern Gaul; in 102 BC, they were beaten at Aquae Sextiae by C. Marius (Liv. epit. 68; Plut. Marius 15,5 f.; 19,3 f.; 19,7; 20,1 f.; cf. Str. 4,1,8; Cass. Dio 44,42,4; 50,24,2; Eutr. 5,1,1; Oros. 5,16,1; 9; 13; Veg…

Divitia

(109 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Cologne-Deutz. Starting as a bridgehead across the Rhine opposite  Colonia Agrippinensis [1] early in the 1st cent. AD and rebuilt with a bridge by Constantine the Great to harbour 1,000 men on the Rhine border that is above flood level (Paneg. 6 [7],11,3; 13,1-5); parts of the structure lasted until Frankish times ( Divitia civitas: Greg. Tur. Franc. 4,16). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 B. Päffgen, W. Zanier, Überlegungen zur Lokalisierung von Oppidum Ubiorum und Legionslager im frühkaiserzeitlichen Köln, in: W. Czysz, C. M. Hüssen et …

Abnoba mons

(154 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Black Forest, German Schwarzwald, mountain region in south-western Germany, possibly including also the low mountain ranges of the Odenwald and Rothaargebirge to the north. In 15 BC,  Tiberius paid a visit there to see the sources of the Danube. From the late Tiberian/early Claudian period (2nd half of the 1st cent. AD), there was a Roman-influenced population on the eastern bank of the upper Rhine region; under the Flavians (2nd half of 1st cent. AD), the wooded mountain area und…

Bingium

(144 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (Vingo), now Bingen/Bingerbrück. Settlement on the bend of the Rhine. Geographically important location in the territory of the  Vangiones (CIL XVII 2,675) on the bridge of the Rhine valley road over the Nahe where the Trier - Mainz route branches off.  Iulius Tutor was defeated here in AD 70, and the bridge that he had pulled down (Tac. Hist. 4,70,4) was replaced around AD 77 as a pile grating (dendrochronologically confirmed; again c. 305); in the early 1st cent. a garrison of several cohorts and …

Celeia

(249 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Modern Célje (Cilli). Settlement in Noricum on the amber trade route near an originally Celtic-Illyrian settlement at the mouth of the Voglajna into the Savinja (Sann). C. owed its early and rapid development to its favourable location on one of the main access routes to the Illyro-Italian gateway. Under the emperor Claudius, it was probably a   municipium of the tribus Claudia (CIL III 5143; 5227; cf. CIL VI 2382) which, in the middle of the 2nd cent., supplied high-ranking imperial officials [1…

Baetasii

(57 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A people in Lower Germania, whose tribal area, attributed to the colonia Ulpia Traiana/Xanten, most likely lay between Erkelenz and Krefeld. The B. participated with one contingent in the revolt of  Julius Civilis (Plin. HN 4,106; Tac. Hist. 4,56,3; 66,1). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31,39 C. B. Rüger, Germania Inferior, 1968, esp. 98f.

Iuthungi

(278 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (‘offsprings, descendants’). One of the Germanic warrior communities living north of the Danube, identified by the Romans with the  Semnones [1; 2], defeated by the Romans (AE 1993, 1231; [5]) at Augsburg on 24/25 April AD 260 (unnecessary doubt over the date in [3], cf. [4]) on the way back from Italy. Annoyed at the absence of annual tributes, contrary to treaty and without a declaration of war, they advanced into Italy again in 270, but were overcome by Aurelianus ‘at the cross…

Amisia

(153 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
(Ἀμισία; Amisía). [German version] [1] Modern Ems river The modern river Ems, frequently mentioned (cf. Str. 7,1,3; Mela 3,30; Plin. HN 4,100; Tac. Ann. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2, 11, 1; 7; Marcianus of Heraclea, Periplus Maris exteri 2,32 GGM 1,555); in medieval documents named as Emisa and Emesa [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) [German version] [2] Settlement, localization uncertain The localization of the settlement of A. (Ptol. 2,11,13; 8,6,3; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.) is uncertain, equally, whether Amisiae in Tac. Ann. 2,8 refers to the left arm of the Ems [2]…

Naristi

(133 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Varisti). Germanic tribe next to ( iuxta) the Hermunduri (Tac. Germ. 42,1) and between the Marcomanni and the Quadi (AE 1956, 124), in the vicinity of Pannonia (western Slovakia; cf. [1. 248-251]). Once friends of Rome ([2]; CIL III 4500), during the Marcomannic Wars  they became enemies (SHA Aur. 22,1), against whom Marcus [2] Aurelius campaigned [3. 104f.]; their leader Valao was killed in single combat by M. Valerius Maximianus (AE l.c.). 3,000 N. deserters were settled in the Empire (Cass. Dio 71,21; CIL X 7290 does not mention any N.). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) B…

Fenni

(129 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tacitus ‘an uncivilized and very poor’ ( mira feritas, foeda paupertas) but ‘happy’ ( beatius arbitrantur) northern people of hunters, whose classification as Germans or Sarmatians was left uncertain (Tac. Germ. 46). They undoubtedly were identical with the Phínnoi (Φίννοι) in northern Scandinavia, who were considered ‘neighbours’ of the Goths (Ptol. 2,11,16: Hs. X; 3,5,8; cf. Jord. Get. 3,22: mitissimi), but not Suomi Finns, who were only named thus in the 2nd half of the 12th cent. Because of the customs described in Tac. Ger…

Noreia

(193 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar Epithet of a mother goddess (possibly derived from a pre-Celtic tribe of the Nori), which was transferred to her shrines [1; 2. 156f.; 3. 240f.; 4]. A place called N. was situated 27 to 40 miles from Virunum in the direction of Ovilavia (Tab. Peut. 5,1). Several inscriptions are addressed to the goddess N. [4. 97f. ill. 4]. The urbs N. (Sempronius Asellio fr. 9 = schol. Bernensia to Verg. G. 3,474), where Papirius Carbo was defeated in 113 BC by the Cimbri, 1200 stadia from Aquileia (Str. 5,1,8…

Carnuntum

(681 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Important Roman base and settlement on the Danube at the intersection of the amber trade route (running from Aquileia through the March valley to the Baltic Sea) and the road along the Danube valley, modern Petronell and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg. Its Celtic name which can be linked with the neighbouring tribe of the Carni (e.g. Old Iranian carn‘stone mount’) indicates a (as yet unverified) pre-Roman settlement. The locus Norici regni C., from where Tiberius set out agains…

Grinario

(105 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (modern Köngen). Fort (2.4 ha) on the Augsburg-Mainz road probably founded around AD 90/95. In about 160 the unit was moved to Lorch but the old camp probably still served as a base for supplies. The vicus G. (CIL XIII 11726f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1) that was c. 20 ha. in size flourished to around the middle of the 3rd cent. and belonged to the civitas Sumelocennensis (modern Rottenburg; CIL XIII 6384; 11727). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography C. Unz, G., 1982 M. Luik, F. Reutti, Der Römerpark in Köngen, 1988 D. Planck, Neues zum röm. Vicus G.-Köngen, in: Arch. A…

Burii

(133 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] East Germanic people, lived as part of the  Lugii, but linguistically and culturally close to the  Suebi, settled with the Marsigni, Cotini and Osi north of the Marcomanni and Quadi up to the source of the Vistula (Tac. Germ. 43,1; Ptol. 2,11,10). In the wars against the Dacians enemies of Rome (illustration of battle scenes on the monument at Adamclisi), in the war against the Marcomanni on the side of Rome, they seceded from Rome because of the Peace of Commodus and around AD 182 were crushed (CIL III 5937) or may have settled in Spain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliogr…

Angli(i).

(115 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tac. Germ. 40,2, a Germanic tribe who, together with the Aviones, Reudigni, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones worshipped  Nerthus; it lived (against Ptol. 2,11,8: on the middle reaches of the Elbe) between Saxony and Jutland in Angulus (modern Angeln) in Schleswig-Holstein (Beda, Hist. eccl. 1,15). Joined at times with the  Suebi, the A. broke away from them under king Offa; most of them made the sea crossing directly to the island of  Britannia, from where Rom…

Lauriacum

(594 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Legio | Pannonia Settlement and legionary camp in Noricum, modern Enns-Lorch in Upper Austria. The region at the confluence of the rivers Enns and Danube was touched by all of the important communication routes in Noricum. Iron from Noricum was traded through the Enns valley, and salt along the river Traun; the Aist valley led to the Bohemian Moldau region. The existence of an oppidum, postulated (with little justification) from the supposedly Celtic name, could not be verified. The assumption …

Frisii

(385 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (the Frisians). A fairly ancient Germanic people (etymology not clear), first mentioned in Plin. HN 4,101, who, according to Tac. Germ. 34,1 comprised the Frisii maiores and minores; they could hardly have been the Frisiavones in Plin. (HN 4,101; 106) in the north of Belgica [1]. They lived to the north of the  Bructeri and to the west of the  Chauci, mainly between Oude Rijn and Ems. There were an estimated 1,500 to 2,000 settlements in the marshes and border regions of the moors of the provinces of Friesland and…

Borbetomagus

(115 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Modern Worms. As an ancient traffic junction at the crossing point of the road along the Rhine valley (CIL XVII 2,675), B. was occupied by various Roman troops (fort inside the town area) from the Augustan era to the end of the 1st cent. After that the vicus, which at times had been walled (CIL XIII 6244), flourished as a suburb of the civitas Vongionum. It was protected by milites II Flaviae (Not. Dign. occ. 41,8;20), but after a siege sometime before 409 (Jer. Ep. 123,15,3), it fell to the  Burgundiones,  Huns,  Alamanni, and (from 496)  Francs. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bib…

Silva Caesia

(76 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Forested area on the right bank of the Rhine in Germania (Tac. Ann. 1,50), marched through by Germanicus [2] after the mutiny in 14 AD, probably from Novaesium. Presumably identical to the Silva Heissi, mentioned in 796 AD, to the north of the Ruhr between Essen-Werden and Essen-Altstadt. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann u. a., s. v. Caesia silva, RGA 4, 321 f.  J. Kunow, Das Limesvorland der südlichen Germania inferior, in: BJ 187, 1987, 63-77.

Moenus

(383 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Main, the largest, right-hand tributary of the Rhine (evidence in [1. 606]). It was of limited value for river navigation because of its meandering course, having to penetrate the wooded mountains of the Odenwald, Spessart and Rhön. Since further use required rule over the Main-Frankish bank region and the Main valley opened up no further important tribal region, it was logical for the Romans to push no farther east towards Lower and Upper Franconia from the important legionary camp of Mogontiacum (Mainz) a…

Lugii

(178 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Germanic ‘great people’ (μέγα ἔθνος; méga éthnos, Str. 7,1,3), the L. ( Lugiorum nomen), comprised many tribes, the most powerful being the Harii, the Helvecones, the Manimi, the Helisii and the Naha(na)rvali. Among the last, the cult community had its sacred grove (Tac. Germ. 43,2). Ptolemy differentiates L. Oma(n)noí, Didoûnoi and Boûroi (Λ. Ὀμαννοί/Ὀμανοί;, Διδοῦνοι, Βοῦροι, Ptol. 2,11,18; 20). As neighbours of the Suebi and the Goti, the L. settled in Silesia on the Oder and in the bordering regions along the Amber Road ( A…

Franci

(528 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (the Franks). Initially a loose league of smaller Germanic tribes on the right-hand side of the Rhine that slowly arose from economic and cultic common ground as well as through relationship by marriage of the princes ─ e.g. the  Am(p)sivarii,  Bructeri,  Chamavi,  Chattuarii, possibly  Chatti, whose ethnicities as well as the general name used since the 3rd cent. AD (Pan. Lat. 11,5,4; 7,2; etymology ‘those eager for battle’, ‘the daring’) lived on (see Tab. Peut. 2,1-3). Since the start of the 4th cent. there is also evidence of Francia. From c. AD 260 the F. repeate…

Alamanni

(848 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic ‘tribe’, made up of fighting and nomadic groups of various origins, formed after AD 180 in the course of the south-west wanderings of the Elbe-Germanic  Suebi, in particular by Semnones (Cass. Dio 71,20,2; Suda s. v. Κελτοί; Keltoí), which despite disputes with Rome was continuously self-renewing. Their name, first mentioned as A. (‘all men’) in the Byzantine exc. of Cass. Dio for AD 213 likely points to the openness of the battle group that broke apart old tribal formations. Therefore, the independent  Iuth…

Fines, ad Fines

(192 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] M. Vinxt modern Vinxt. Town at the place (near Sinzig) where the road between Bonn and Remagen reaches the border between Germania inferior and superior ( Obrinkas Ptol. 29,2; 8f.; cf. Abrinkas Marcianus 2,28, < Celt. * aber ‘mouth’). Altars to the (Nymphae) Fines have been found there and, on both sides, inscriptions by beneficiarii and soldiers (CIL XIII 7713; 7724; 7731f.). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography C. B. Rüger, Germania Inferior, 1968, 47-49. [German version] [2] M. Pfyn near Frauenfeld modern Pfyn near Frauenfeld (Switzerland), vicus of the…
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