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Philomelus

(290 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Φιλόμηλος; Philómēlos). [German version] [1] Son of Iasion and Demeter Son of Iasion and Demeter, brother of the wealthy Pluto (different Hes. Theog. 969f.) and father of Pareas, the founder of Parium (but Parios, son of Iasion, is more frequently named as the founder). P. lived in extreme poverty and was regarded as the inventor of the wagon, which he harnessed to two oxen. In recognition of his ingenuity his mother placed him amongst the stars as Bootes (Petellides of Knossos in Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Leader of the Phocian League S…

Cleophantus

(273 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεόφαντος; Kleóphantos). [German version] [1] Son of Themistocles and Archippe Son of  Themistocles and Archippe (Plut. Themistocles 32; Pl. Men. 93d-e), was honoured with civic rights in Lampsacus (ATL III,111-3). Davies 6669,VI. Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Greek physician, 3rd cent. BC Greek doctor, active c. 270-250 BC, brother of  Erasistratus, pupil of  Chrysippus [3] of Cnidus and founder of a medical school (Gal., 17A 603 K.). He wrote a paper on the medical prescription of wine, which provided the model for a similar…

Pasicles

(171 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πασικλῆς; Pasiklês). [German version] [1] Athenian from the deme of Acharnae (4th cent. BC) Athenian of the deme Acharnae, son of the banker Pasion [2], born in 380 BC. After the death of his father in 370 the wealth was divided in accord with the will between P. and his elder brother Apollodorus [1], and a Phormion appointed P.'s guardian (Dem. Or. 36,8-10). On his majority in 362 P. took over the banking house (ibid. 36,11; 37) and between 362 and 360 apparently took part in his brother's costly trierarchi…

Mys

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μῦς; Mỹs). [German version] [1] Karian from Euromos, around 480 BC Carian from Euromus, who visited several oracle shrines in Boeotia and Phocis in 480/479 BC on behalf of Mardonius [1]. In the Ptoion mountains the oracle replied to him in the Carian language (Hdt. 8,133-135; Paus. 9,23,6; cf. Plut. Mor. 412b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Toreutic sculptor and and fellow artist of Phidias Toreutic sculptor in metal and fellow artist of Phidias. M. executed the shield reliefs on Phidias’s ‘Athena Promachos with a representation of the fight betwe…

Phoebidas

(201 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φοιβίδας/ Phoibídas). Spartan general, probably related by marriage to the house of Agesilaus [2] [1. 147f.]. In 382 BC, supposed to bring new troops to his brother Eudamidas [1], who was fighting Olynthus, on the way he marched to Thebes and in a surprise attack captured the Cadmeia, the fortress of Thebes, during the Thesmophoria (Xen. Hell.  5,2,25-36;  Diod. Sic. 15,20,1f.; Plut. Pelopidas 5; Plut. Agesilaus 23f.; Plut.  Mor. 576a-577d; Androtion FGrH 324 F 50). Xenophon (Xen.…

Cleopompus

(71 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κλεόπομπος; Kleópompos). Son of Cleinias, Athenian, as stratēgós in 431/0 BC led a fleet of 30 triremes against Opuntian Locris and conquered Thronium (Thuc. 2.26; Diod. Sic. 12.44.1). In the following year, jointly with  Hagnon [1] he commanded the second expeditionary corps to win back Potidaea (Thuc. 2.58.1f.).  Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin 1676 C. W. Fornara, The Athenian Board of Generals from 501 to 404, 1971, 54f.

Themison

(339 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεμίσων; Themísōn). [German version] [1] Tyrant from Eretria [1], 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1], who occupied Oropus in 366 BC with some of the town’s exiles. The people controlling the operation were based in Thebes, and assistance also came from there in order to fend off an Athenian counter-attack. After an arbitration tribunal the pólis went to the Thebans, who maintained T.’s regime (Diod. Sic. 15,76,1; Dem. Or. 18,99; Xen. Hell. 7,4,1). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Hegemony, 1980, 193 f. [German version] [2] Th. from Laodicea Greek doctor, …

Theocrines

(60 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Θεοκρίνης; Theokrínēs). Athenian from the Hybadae deme (IG II/III2 2,2, 2409, 44 f.), a notorious sykophántēs (cf. Dem. Or. 18,313), who made a living from threats of court action and extortion. A forensic speech by Epichares from 342 BC ([Dem.] Or. 58) is directed against him. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Traill, PAA, 508320  Schäfer, vol. 4 (appendices), 266-280.

Pammenes

(478 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Παμμένης; Pamménēs). [German version] [1] Close friend of Epaminondas Theban, close friend of Epaminondas. On his second Peloponnesian campaign, Epaminondas entrusted the still young P. with garrisoning Sicyon (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,16,3), and in 368 BC with a mission to protect Megalopolis (Paus. 8,27,2). From 368 to 365, Philippus [4] II, who was about the same age as P., stayed as a hostage in the house of P.' parents ([1. 118] with bibliography). After the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea, P. became a…

Lacedaemonius

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λακεδαιμόνιος; Lakedaimónios). Athenian, son of Cimon [2] and Isodice (Plut. Cimon 16). He served as hípparchos around 445 BC (IG I3 511; [1. 45-49]). In the summer of 433 L., as stratēgós, was sent to Corcyra with ten ships to assist the allied island in its conflict with Corinth (Thuc. 1,45,2f.; Plut. Pericles 29; ML 61). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. R. Bugh, The Horsemen of Athens, 1988. Davies 8429, XIII G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War, 31989, 76f. Traill, PAA 600810.

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Polyanthes

(79 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πολυάνθης/ Polyánthēs) from Corinth commanded a squadron in a sea battle off the Achaean coast in 413 BC (Thuc. 7,34,2). Bribed by  Timocrates with Persian gold in 395, P. and Timolaus steered an anti-Spartan and probably also democratic course, which resulted in the Corinthian League (StV 225) (Xen. Hell. 3,5,1; Paus. 3,9,8; Hell. Oxy. 2,3). Corinthus (II B); Peloponnesian War (with map) Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984  H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 83.

Leobotes

(65 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] see Labotas see Labotas Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, 5th cent. BC (Λεωβώτης; Leōbṓtēs). Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family; around 467/6 BC he issued an eisangelia against the already banished Themistocles ( Eisangelia ) because of high treason and achieved his conviction (Plut. Themistocles 23; Plut. Mor. 605E; Craterus FGrH 342 F 11). Davies 9688,XII. Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Maeandrius

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μαιάνδριος; Maiándrios). [German version] [1] M. of Samos Tyrant of Samos, 6th cent. BC Confidant of the tyrant Polycrates, conducted negotiations with the Persian satrap Oroetes (Hdt. 3,123; cf. Lucian. Charidemus 14) for him. After the death of Polycrates, M. himself managed to become tyrant in about 521 BC but soon had to give way to Syloson, who was appointed by the Persians (Hdt. 3,142-6). He fled to Sparta but was expelled from the country by the ephors because of his wealth (Hdt. 3,148; Plut. Mor. 224a-b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Roisman, M. of Samos, in: Historia …

Poliarchos

(148 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(πολίαρχος/ políarchos). [German version] [1] Senior official in Thessalian cities (3rd cent. BC) ('High city official'). In the 3rd cent. BC, the cities of Thessaly had councils of five políarchoi, cf. IG IX 2,459 (Crannon); IG IX 2,1233 (Larisa [1]). The etymology suggests that their duties probably encompassed the military and civil interests of the polis. The division of powers with the other city council, the tagoí, is unclear (cf. [2]). The archipolíarchos served as chair (IG IX 2,1233). Tagos; Thessalians, Thessalia Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Helly, L'état Thess…

Paches

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πάχης/ Páchēs). Athenian, son of Epicurus, sent in late autumn 428 BC as a  stratēgós with 1000 hoplites against the disloyal city of Mytilene, which he captured after several months of siege (Thuc. 3,18,3-3,28; Diod. Sic. 12,55,5-10). After operations off the Ionian coast, he also subjugated Antissa, Pyrrha and Eresus (Thuc. 3,28,3; 35,1-2), all on Lesbos [1. 171f.]. On his return, P. was indicted in Athens (at the instigation of Cleon [1]). (The accusation, expressed in Anth. Pal. 7,614, of …

Hegesistratus

(274 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγησίστρατος; Hēgēsístratos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sigeum, around 530 BC Son of  Peisistratus and the Argive Timonassa (Hdt. 5,94; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 17,3). Installed as tyrant of Sigeum by his father around 530 BC, he defended the city as a colony of the Peisistratids against the Mytilenaeans (Hdt. loc. cit.).  Tyrannis Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 11793,VI (B) M. Stahl, Aristokraten und Tyrannen, 1987, 220f. Traill, PAA 481600. [German version] [2] Seer in the army of Mardonius, 5th cent. BC H. of Elis, son of Tellias. Fled from Spartan captivity an…

Onetor

(113 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνήτωρ/ Onḗtōr). Respected Athenian, eldest son of Philonides, from the deme of Melite, born c. 415 BC. Isocrates (Isoc. Or. 15,93) praises the financial expenditures of his pupil O. for the polis (especially liturgies; Heliodorus FGrH 373 F6 mentions a choragic votive offering). According to Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 30,10), his wealth amounted to more than 30 talents. His sister's second husband was Aphobus, which is why O. became involved in the court case concerning Demosthenes' [2] guardians proceedings and …

Malecidas

(90 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μαλεκίδας/ Malekídas, also Μαλκίτης/ Malkítēs). Theban, Boeotarch during the Theban hegemony (IG VII 2408), who, after the death of Pelopidas in 364 BC, led an army of 7,000 hoplites and 700 cavalry, together with Diogeiton, against Alexander [15] of Pherae. Alexander was forced to relinquish his control over the Thessalian cities and obliged to supply troops (Plut. Pel. 35). M. is apparently identical with the Boeotarch Malgis, mentioned by Pausanias (9,13,6) in connection with the Battle of Leuctra. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Heg…
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