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Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Oenobius

(54 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ᾨνόβιος/ Ōinóbios). Athenian from the dḗmos of Decelea. In the year 410/409 B.C. he was in Thrace as a strategos (IG I3 101, l. 47). O. is probably identical to the person who requested  in the year 404/3 that Thucydides be recalled (Paus. 1,23,9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 2191  PA 11357.

Learchus

(81 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Callimachus, Athenian. L. was at the court of Sitalces in 430 BC when Peloponnesian envoys arrived who were meant to persuade the Thracian king to break with Athens. Through Prince Sadocus, who had been given Attic citizenship shortly before this, L. managed to have them arrested, and they were deported to Athens and executed (Thuc. 2,67). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1778 Traill, PAA, 602725 S. Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides, 1, 1991, 350f.

Teledamus

(185 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Son of Odysseus and Calypso (Τηλέδαμος; Tēlédamos). According to Eust. on Hom. Od. 16,118, the author of the Tēlegonía names a son of Odysseus and Calypso“Telegonus or Teledamus”, which would make him the brother of Nausithous [2] and Nausinous. The passage is evidently corrupt, since elsewhere Telegonus is Odysseus' son with Circe. For a discussion of conjectures: [1]. Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Scherling, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 313 f. [German version] [2] Son of Agamemnon and Cassandra (Paus.: Τελέδαμος/ Telédamos, schol. Hom. Od.: Τελέδημος/ Telé…

Pherenicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Φερένικος; Pherénikos). [German version] [1] Theban politician Theban, son of Cephisodotus, who had taken in Athenians who had fled from the Thirty Tyrants ( Triákonta ) into Thebes (Lys. fr. 78). After the occupation of the Cadmeia in 382 BC P., a follower of Ismenias' [1] faction, had to escape to Athens (Plut. Pelopidas 5,3). During the emigrant's attack on Thebes in December 379 P. waited with his people in the Thriasian Plain until a group led by Pelopidas had eliminated the polemarchs in Thebes (Plut. Pelopidas 8,1; see also Plut. Mor. 576c; 577a). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.…

Phoebidas

(201 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φοιβίδας/ Phoibídas). Spartan general, probably related by marriage to the house of Agesilaus [2] [1. 147f.]. In 382 BC, supposed to bring new troops to his brother Eudamidas [1], who was fighting Olynthus, on the way he marched to Thebes and in a surprise attack captured the Cadmeia, the fortress of Thebes, during the Thesmophoria (Xen. Hell.  5,2,25-36;  Diod. Sic. 15,20,1f.; Plut. Pelopidas 5; Plut. Agesilaus 23f.; Plut.  Mor. 576a-577d; Androtion FGrH 324 F 50). Xenophon (Xen.…

Cleopompus

(71 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κλεόπομπος; Kleópompos). Son of Cleinias, Athenian, as stratēgós in 431/0 BC led a fleet of 30 triremes against Opuntian Locris and conquered Thronium (Thuc. 2.26; Diod. Sic. 12.44.1). In the following year, jointly with  Hagnon [1] he commanded the second expeditionary corps to win back Potidaea (Thuc. 2.58.1f.).  Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin 1676 C. W. Fornara, The Athenian Board of Generals from 501 to 404, 1971, 54f.

Themison

(339 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεμίσων; Themísōn). [German version] [1] Tyrant from Eretria [1], 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1], who occupied Oropus in 366 BC with some of the town’s exiles. The people controlling the operation were based in Thebes, and assistance also came from there in order to fend off an Athenian counter-attack. After an arbitration tribunal the pólis went to the Thebans, who maintained T.’s regime (Diod. Sic. 15,76,1; Dem. Or. 18,99; Xen. Hell. 7,4,1). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Hegemony, 1980, 193 f. [German version] [2] Th. from Laodicea Greek doctor, …

Theocrines

(60 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Θεοκρίνης; Theokrínēs). Athenian from the Hybadae deme (IG II/III2 2,2, 2409, 44 f.), a notorious sykophántēs (cf. Dem. Or. 18,313), who made a living from threats of court action and extortion. A forensic speech by Epichares from 342 BC ([Dem.] Or. 58) is directed against him. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Traill, PAA, 508320  Schäfer, vol. 4 (appendices), 266-280.

Pammenes

(478 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Παμμένης; Pamménēs). [German version] [1] Close friend of Epaminondas Theban, close friend of Epaminondas. On his second Peloponnesian campaign, Epaminondas entrusted the still young P. with garrisoning Sicyon (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,16,3), and in 368 BC with a mission to protect Megalopolis (Paus. 8,27,2). From 368 to 365, Philippus [4] II, who was about the same age as P., stayed as a hostage in the house of P.' parents ([1. 118] with bibliography). After the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea, P. became a…

Timosthenes

(347 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Τιμοσθένης/ Timosthénēs). [German version] [1] Of Euboea, c. 300 BC Son of Demophanes from Carystus [1] in Euboea. After his homeland had joined the anti-Macedonian alliance, he was actively involved in fighting in the Lamian War. In 306/5 BC he was honoured in Athens for his services (Syll.3 327). A commendation of his grandson as late as the year 229/28 recalls his commitment (Syll.3 496,23-24). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodes, naval commander and geographical author, 3rd cent. BC T. from Rhodes, naval commander of Ptolemaeus [3] II, author of a wor…

Leocrates

(258 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωκράτης; Leōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Strategos in 479 and 459/8 BC Son of Stroebus, one of the Athenian stratēgoí in the battle of Plataea in 479 BC, is said to have prevented the conflict between the Athenians and Spartans over the erection of the tropaion (Plut. Aristides 20,1). Afterwards he dedicated a votive offering at Athens (epigram of Simonides [1. no. 312]; IG I3 983). Again elected stratēgós in 459/8, L. defeated the Aeginetes in a naval battle, establishing a blockade around the island (Thuc. 1,105,2-3; Diod. Sic. 11,78,3-4) [2]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. …

Theagenes

(873 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
(Θεαγένης/ Theagénēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megara, 7th cent. BC Tyrant of Megara [2] in the last quarter of the 7th cent. BC; he probably descended from a noble family and maintained hospitality with aristocrats all over Greece. According to a later tradition, when he seized power, he is said to have won the people's confidence in his fight against the city's landowners (by slaughtering their flocks: Aristot. Pol. 5,1305a 21-26) and to have been granted a body guard by the assembly (Aristot. Rh.…

Onomarchus

(241 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαρχος/ Onómarchos, Phocian Ὀνύμαρχος/ Onýmarchos; FdD III,5, no. 23, col. II,42). Politician and military commander of the Phocian League (see Phocis), son of Euthycrates (Aristot. Pol. 5,4,1304 a 12). In 371 BC, O. defended Elatea [1] against the Thebans (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,38,1). Following the death of Philomelus in 355 (according to Diod. Sic. 16,56,5; 61,2, the latter and O. were brothers, but cf. [1. 19f.]), he became stratēgós autokrátōr of the Phocians, brutally putting down his rivals (Diod. Sic. 16,33,1-3) [2. 131]. O. energeticall…

Neocles

(460 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νεοκλῆς; Neoklȇs). [German version] [1] Father of the Athenian politician Themistocles The politically inactive father of the Athenian politician and commander Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 1; [1. 60-66; 69f.]; therefore Themistocles is called a ‘newcomer ’in Hdt. 7,143) ; aristocrat (Nep. Themistocles 1), a member of the Lycomidae family. N.'s wife was possibly non-Athenian. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography 1 F.J. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles, 1980. Davies, 212ff.  Traill, PAA 706445. [German version] [2] Probable son of Themistocles Probably eldest s…

Scopadae

(169 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σκοπάδαι; Skopádai). Noble family from Crannon, which, beside the Aleuadae, was one of the leading clans of Thessaly in the 6th century BC. On account of their wealth from cattle and pasturing (cf. Theoc. 16,36-39) the S. were from time to time at the lead of the Thessalian League (Tagos). As in the case of Aleuas, constitutive measures in establishing the organisation of the Thessalian army are also ascribed to their mythical/historical founder, Scopas I, (cf. Xen. Hell. 6,1,19; …

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…

Ptoeodorus

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πτωιόδωρος/ Ptōiódōros, MSS Πτοιόδωρος/ Ptoiódōros). [German version] [1] Exiled Theban, c. 425/4 BC Exiled Theban; c. 425/4 BC, ringleader of a combined Athenian action against Siphae and Delium [1] intended to topple the oligarchic government of the Boeotian League (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.). The undertaking failed miserably. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 432-371 B.C., 1994, 16-18. [German version] [2] Politician from Megara, c. 350 BC Influential and wealthy politician from Megara; came into contact c. 360 BC with the banished Dio…

Nicophemus

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νικόφημος/ Nikóphēmos). Athenian, confidant of Conon [1], who in 395/4 BC made him commander of the Persian fleet (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4; Hell. Oxy. 15). In 393 he commanded a force occupying Cythera (Xen. Hell. 4,8,8) [1. 82, 126]. When he returned to Cyprus, he led a (failed) mission in aid of Evagoras [1] (389 BC) together with his son Aristophanes [1]. N. was then summarily condemned and executed at Athens, and his fortune was confiscated (Lys. 19,7; 11f.; 35f.; 42-44). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. Funke, Homonoia und Arche, 1980. PA 11066.

Koine Eirene

(572 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κοινὴ εἰρήνη; koinḕ eirḗnē). ‘Common peace’, multilateral peace concept of the 4th cent. BC. Characteristics are demands for the autonomy ( autonomía ) of the polis as well as compulsoriness for all, that is, not only for the warring Greek states [1. XVI]. In contemporary sources, the term is attested only rarely, first in Andocides (3,17; 34, in the year 392/1), who advocated a κ.ε. πᾶσι τοῖς Ἕλλησι (‘Koine Eirene for all Greeks’). One such Koine Eirene (KE) was sworn to in the year 386 in Sparta after negoti…
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