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(192 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy Poet of the Old Comedy, one-time winner at the Dionysia of the 91st Olympiad (415-412 BC) [1.test.1.2]. 61 fragments and six titles are extant, amongst them an Amphitryon and a Plutos. Rhinon and ‘Fishes’ ( Ichthyes) -- portraying a fish state (cf. Aristophanes' state of birds) in conflict with the Athenians -- were probably written after 403 BC. Occasionally, four plays by Aristophanes were also attributed to A. [1.test.4]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 538-557. [German version] [2] Pythagoraean Pythagorean who, acc…


(115 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Μυῖα; Myîa). Daughter of Pythagoras and Theano, according to Porph. Vita Pythagorica 4 (cf. Anon. Photii p. 237,16 Thesleff = Phot. Bibl. 249, VII p. 126,31 Henry; Suda s.v. M.), according to Iambl. VP 267 wife of Milon [2] of Croton. Perhaps she is the one referred to in Timaeus' report (FGrH 566 F 131 = Porph. ibid.) that Pythagoras' daughter, as a maiden, was the leader of the maidens in Croton, and as a woman she led the women. A pseudepigraphic letter to Phyllis regarding the proper choice of a nurse is found in [1]. Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 A. Städele, D…

Pythagorean School

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
For the problematic nature of the tradition, see Pythagoras [2] A. [German version] A. Beginnings and organization In the sources, the beginnings of the Pythagorean School take on the aura of legend. When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his appearance and speeches so overwhelmed those who met him that he was immediately joined by a large number of Crotonians and influential persons from the area (Dicaearchus fr. 33 Wehrli along with Porph. Vita Pythagorae 19; cf. Nicomachus in Porph. ibid. 20 and already Isocr. Or…


(336 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Μνήσαρχος; Mnḗsarchos). [German version] [1] Father of Pythagoras Father of Pythagoras (6th and early 5th cents. BC), whose historicity seems certain (cf. Heracl. fr. 17 Marcovich and Hdt. 4,95,1), even if the tradition is contradictory and sometimes legendary. M. is sometimes described as a Samian gem cutter (Diog. Laert. 8,1; Apul. Flor. 15; cf. Porph. Vita Pythagorica 1; [1]), sometimes as a merchant from the Tyrrhenian island of Lemnos who had settled on Samos (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29a = Porph. ibid…


(555 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἵππασος; Híppasos). Name often used in epic texts for figures lacking any further characterization, particularly common in patronymic information about less important heroes. Esp. interesting in this context are [1] - [4]: [German version] [1] Father of Actor, the Argonaut  Father of Actor, the Argonaut (Apoll. Rhod. 1,112; Hyg. Fab. 14). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Charops  Father of  Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,426). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of Hypsenor  Father of Hypsenor, killed by Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,411). Visser, Edzard …

Soul, migration of the

(968 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] The Greek terms μετεμψύχωσις ( metempsýchōsis, literally 're-ensoulment'), μετενσωμάτωσις ( metensōmátōsis, 're-embodiment'), παλιγγενεσία ( palingenesía, 're-becoming') are not recorded in ancient sources before the 1st cent. BC (only the verbal phrase πάλιν γίγνεσθαι/ pálin gígnesthai is in Plato; the noun in the other sense, that of periodic world renewal, is documented in the older Stoa). However, the doctrine of the migration of the soul is demonstrably present in the Greek cultural sphere from the 2nd half o…


(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …


(365 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Εὔρυτος; Eúrytos). [German version] [1] Hom. character Ruler of Oechalia, mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,596; 730. The location of Oechalia is unclear (on the Peloponnese?). In Hom. Od. 21,20ff., Iphitus the son of E., while searching for his horses in Messenia, gives Odysseus his father's great bow (with which Odysseus later kills the suitors), and on his search is later murdered by Heracles. E. himself is killed by Apollo, whom he challenges to an archery competition (Od. 8,224-228). He plays an important role in the non-extant early epic ‘The Capture of Oechalia’ (Οἰχαλίας ἅλωσις; Oichalías…


(1,232 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ἀρχύτας, Archỳtas) [1] of Tarentum Pythagoraean philosopher [German version] A. Life Important Pythagorean philosopher of the ‘mathematical’ orientation, politician of Tarentum, a friend of Plato's. His life and his teachings are known in little more than outline because of insufficient records; his true works, with the exception of a few fragments, are lost, as is Aristoxenus' biography, Aristotle's treatise on A.'s philosophy and his comparison of Plato's Timaeus and A. (no. 94 in Diog. Laert. 5,25 = no. 85 in Hesychius' catalogue). A. is described as the so…
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