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Dardani

(391 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Δάρδανοι; Dárdanoi). [German version] [5] Powerful Illyrian tribal group in the south-western part of Moesia superior, strongly influenced by Thrace, particularly in the east of the region. The region was within the sphere of influence of the Macedonians, who gained control over Dardania in c. 335 BC. However, the D. continued to strive for a certain degree of independence. In 284 BC they were united under the rule of one king and waged prolonged wars against the Macedonians. In 229 the D. defeated Demetrius II, who died soon after his d…

Cius, [2]

(112 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fortification and statio on the road along the Danube from Carsium to Beroe and Troesmis in Moesia Inferior, modern Gîrliciu/Constanţa in Rumania (It. Ant. 224: Cio; Not. Dign. Or. 39,6,14: Cii). A Roman garrison may already be assumed in the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD, in the 4th cent. C. was the base of a cuneus (division) equitum stablesianorum. In 369 Emperor Valens defeated the Gothic king Athanaric there (CIL III 7494). Last fortification work in the Valentinian period. Archaeological finds: ruins, inscriptions, hoard find of the 4…

Ulpianum

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Οὐλπιανόν/ Ou lpianón, Οὐλπιάνα/ Ou lpiána). Roman fort and probably from the time of Hadrianus a municipium in Moesia superior (Moesi; Ptol. 3,9,6; Procop. Goth. 4,25,13; Procop. Aed. 4,1,29; Iord. Get. 285), modern Gračanica (in the district of Priština in Kosovo). There is evidence of a decurio and an ordo municipii; in the Severan period (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) U. was called Res Publica Ulpiana (CIL III 1685 f.). U. was the centre of a mining district, an important road hub and prob…

Pannonia

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Up to subjugation by Rome Region and Roman province to the north and east of the Danube (Ister [2]), bordered in the south by the region south of the Savus; the western border ran west of the line between Vindobona, Poetovio and Emona, now the western part of Hungary, the Slovakian territory around Gerulata, the Austrian around the Viennese Basin and Burgenland, as well as the northern strip of Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The country was named after its original inhabitants (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, cf. Str. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, cf. 1,1,10). This lllyrian group…

Quadriburgium

(352 words)

Author(s): Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Late Antique type of fort Late Antique type of fort. The high defensive wall, generally on a square ground plan with sides measuring between 15 and 40 m, was protected on the outside by square or rectangular corner and intermediate towers. Troop casements abutted inside. The inner courtyard contained a subterranean cistern. Fortifications [III B]; Limes Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) Bibliography S. Johnson, Late Roman Fortifications, 1983, 27, 253 ff. [German version] [2] Settlement, probable find site on the hill of Qualburg (lower Rhine) Settlement, probably t…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Dorticum

(116 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δορτικόν; Dortikón). Roman fort on the right bank of the Danube at the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok), originally in Moesia Superior, in Dacia Ripensis after 271, today Vrav, Vidin in Bulgaria. In the 4th cent., location of the cuneus equitum Dalmatarum Divitensium. Still known as a fortress under Justinian. On its localization cf. also [1. 60, 77,248]. References: Geogr. Rav. 4,7,8; Tab. Peut.; It. Ant. 219,1; Not. Dign. Or. 42,3,14; Ptol. 3,9,4 (Δορτικόν); Procop. Aed. 4,6,20. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibli…

Sarmizegetusa

(236 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Balkans, languages Town in Dacia (cf. Ptol. 3,8,9: Ζαρμιζεγέθουσα/ Zarmizegéthousa; Cass. Dio 68,8,7: Ζερμιζεγέθουσα/ Zermizegéthousa; Dig. 50,15,1,9: Zarmizegetusa; Geogr. Rav 4,7: Sarmazege; Tab. Peut. 7,5: Sarmategte; in the inscriptions mainly S.), modern Hunedoara, Haţeg (Romania). In the pre-Roman Period, the centre was a settlement of the Daci and residence of the Dacian kings (S. Regia in Dacia Superior). Owing…

Savaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Roman colony in Pannonia superior, modern Szombathely in western Hungary. Its location on the Amber Road (route Aquileia - Carnuntum) and good road connections to Arrabona and via Sopianae to Sirmium enabled a swift economic growth. Under Claudius [III 1] a colony was founded in S. ( Colonia Divi Claudii S.: Plin. HN 3,146), t ribus Claudia. Until AD 106 S. was the administrative centre of the province. As a centre of communications and admi…

Marsonia

(83 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Fort and settlement in Pannonia inferior on the river Savus and on the road from Siscia to Sirmium, modern Slavonski Brod in Croatia. The road starting at Siscia bifurcated north of Marsonia; the northern branch led to Sirmium via Cibalae, the southern branch via Marsonia and Saldis. In late antiquity, auxilia ascarii are mentioned as the garrison of Marsonia (Not. Dign. Occ. 32,43). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. M., RE 14, 1981 TIR L 34, Budapest, 1968, 78.

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Brigetio

(136 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Pannonia | Pertinax Important Roman settlement (1st -4th cent. AD; municipium, later colonia); legion camp on the right bank of the Danube in Pannonia inferior, now Szöny/Komárom (Hungary). The legio I adiutrix was stationed in B. As the counter fort Celamantia (now Iža/Komárne in Slovakia) on the left bank of the Danube, B. was a strong military base in the defence against the tribes settling beyond the Danube. In B. Emperor Valentinian I died in 375 du…

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Lugio

(174 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λουγίωνον; Lougíōnon, Ptol. 2,15,3; Lugione, It. Ant. 244; Tab. Peut. 6,1; Lucione, Cod. Iust. 9,20,10f.). Roman auxiliary fort in Pannonia inferior, modern Dunaszekcsö (in the Hungarian county of Baranya), in the post-Diocletian period Florentia. The camp was probably established under Domitian to protect the crossing of the Danube and the road junction situated in L. The first garrison was made up of the cohors II Asturum et Callaecorum and the cohors VII Breucorum. After the withdrawal of the cohors II Asturum (under Commodus), the cohors I Noricorum moved into…

Cibalae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Important road junction in Pannonia inferior, modern Vinkovci (Croatia). Municipium since the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3267), colonia Aurelia from the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 2833). Monuments: remains of buildings, water pipes, thermae, graves, inscriptions, small finds. In AD 314 Licinius was defeated in a battle near C. by Constantine the Great (Eutr. 10,5; Zos. 2,18,4, also describing the location of C.). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 46f.

Brongus

(63 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Βρόγγος, Βάργος, Μάργος; Bróngos, Bárgos, Márgos). River in Moesia superior, rising on the eastern slope of the Scardus mountain range (Stara Planina) and flows into the Danube above Viminacium; now Morava (Hdt. 4,49; Str. 7,5,12; Ptol. 3,9,3; Eutr. 9,13). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography D. Dečev, Die thrak. Sprachreste, 1957, 90 Vl. Georgiev, La toponymie ancienne de la péninsule Balcanique, 1961, 33.

Tiarantus

(59 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τιαραντός; Tiarantós). Left bank tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), rising in the lands of the Scythae; smaller and turned farther westward than the Pyretus (Hdt. 4,48,2 f.), possibly identifiable with the modern Seret. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 762  A. Corcella, in: S. M. Medaglia (ed.), Erodoto, Le Storie, 4, 1993, here 272 (with comm.).

Vetus Salina

(220 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement ( canabae and vicus) on the Aquincum - Intercisa - Altinum Limes road (Ptol. 2,16,4: Σαλίνον/ Salínon; It. Ant. 245,4: Vetus Salinae; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,16,37: Vetusalina; Tab. Peut. 5,4: Vetusalo; Geogr. Rav 220,8: Belsalino = Bet(u)salino?; CIL III 10305: ' cives Romani ad Vetussalinas consistentes'/"Roman citizens settled at VS"), modern Adony in the megye of Fejér in Hungary. Originally a wood-and-earth fort was built in VS (three building periods from the middle of the 1st cent. until the 12…

Naissus

(645 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Pilgrimage [German version] I. Site; Roman period Municipium in Moesia Superior (or Dardania; Ναϊσσός/ Naïssos: Ptol. 3,4,9; Νάϊσ(σ)ος/ Náïs(s)os: Zos. 1,45,1; 3,11,1f.; Procop. Goth. 3,40,2; Ναϊσσούπολις/ Naïssoúpolis: Procop. Aed. 4,1,31; Naissus/ Naisus is the usual form in Latin sources; Naessus: Amm. Marc. 21,10,5), modern Niš in Serbia. Originally a Thracian settlement, which by the 1st cent. AD was evidently used by the Romans as an occasional base. Its indig…

Florentiana

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Φλωρεντίανα; Phlōrentíana: Procop. Aed. 4,4,1-3). Roman fortress on the Danuvius (Danube) near the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok). Originally in Moesia Superior, from AD 271 in Dacia Ripensis, probably modern Florentin near Vidin in Bulgaria. The fortress, destroyed in late antiquity, was rebuilt at the time of Justinian for strategic reasons. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 75 (Bulgarian with German summary) TIR L. 34, 1968, 59 (bibliography).

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Ad Novas

(137 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Military post in Pannonia inferior Military post in  Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 246,3; Not. Dign. occ. 32,9: Novas; 32,28: equites Dalmatae, Novas; 32,40: Auxilia Novensia, Arsaciana (Antiana?) sive Novas; cf. CIL III 10665). Remains of buildings, graves, ceramics and finds of coins north-east of Zmajevac near Osijek are presumed to represent the remains of Ad Novas. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien, 1932, 112 TIR L 34, 25. [German version] [2] Military post in Moesia Superior Military post in  Moesi…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…

Gorsium

(176 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (It. Ant. 264,4; 265,1; CIL III 3342f.; 3346; 11345). Roman camp and civil settlement in Pannonia inferior, modern Tác/Fejér (near Székesfehérvár/Hungary). Originally, G. was the centre of the Celtic Aravisci; during the Roman period, it was the intersection of the roads Sopianae─Aquincum and Sopianae─Brigetio. Rich archaeological finds attest to the importance of G. (remnants of buildings, burial ground). In the 1st cent. AD the camp which harboured the ala I Scubulorum was installed. The garrison was discharged…

Siculus Flaccus

(77 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Along with Frontinus and Hyginus, most significant of the Roman surveyors. He probably lived under Trajan and Hadrian in the 2nd cent. AD and in his work De condicionibus agrorum ('On the legal status of landholdings') described the forms of Roman land ownership and the working methods of gromatici ( groma ); what survives of it [1] relates to Italy. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography 1 C. Thulin (ed.), Corpus agrimensorum Romanorum, vol. 1.1, 1913, 98-130.

Viminacium

(427 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman legion camp and civil settlement in Moesia superior (Ptol. 3,9,3: Οὐιμινάκιον/ Ouiminákion; Procop. Aed. 4,5,17; 4,6,1: Βιμινάκιον/ Biminákion; Eutr. 9,20,2; Not. Dign. Or. 41,5;16;31;38; It. Ant. 133,2 f.; 217,5; It. Burd. 564,8: civitas Viminatio; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Viminatio) near modern Kostolac (Serbia). The settlement was located in the area of the Celtic Scordisci on the right shore of the Mlava near the mouth of the …

Itinerare

(1,501 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Some Mesopotamian texts come very close to later travel accounts. An Old Babylonian text describes in detail a 38-day journey from Babylonian Dūr-Apil-Sîn to North Syrian Emar [1], two Old Babylonian tablets a journey of more than 6 months from Babylonian Larsa to North Syria and back [2]. The Neo-Assyrian ‘Zamua Itinerary’ [5] includes the description of a 4-day trip through the  Zagrus mountains indicating exact travel distances. Especially Neo-Assyrian reports of military campaigns from the 9th/8th cents. BC often contain longer …

Siscia

(190 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome Roman settlement in Pannonia superior ('Sicce', Geogr. Rav. 4,20; Σεγεστική/ Segestikḗ, Str. 7,5,2) at the confluence of the Colapis (modern  Kulpa) and Savus (modern Sava), modern Sisak in Croatia. The region had already been settled in the pre-Roman period. In 35 BC it came under Roman rule. In the 1st cent. AD the Legio IX Hispania was stationed there until 42/3. Under Vespasian, S. was elevated to a colonia, under Septimius [II 7] Severus designated Colonia Flavia…

Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Drobeta

(215 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Garrison and civilian settlement on the Danube east of the ‘Iron Gate’ in Dacia inferior or Dacia maluensis, modern Turnu Severin (Oltenia, Romania). Near it was Pontes, where Apollodorus of Damascus erected the famous Danube bridge for Trajan. In the 2nd Dacian War D. was used as a military base by the Romans. In Trajan's time the cohors Cretum sagittariorum built a large garrison here, in which various auxiliary troops were later stationed ( cohors III campestris: CIL III 14216,8,10; co…

Cotini

(114 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic people that settled in the 1st cent. AD with other small tribes to the north of the  Marcomanni and  Quadi. Renowned as miners, they apparently owed the Quadi tribute. Apart from mining iron ore, it may be assumed that they manufactured weapons. Their location is disputed but it was probably in central Slovakia near the Slovakian Ore Mountains. In the Marcomanni Wars the C. sided with the Romans (Cass. Dio 72,12) and were later settled between the Danube and the Drava (Tac. Germ. 43,1; Ptol. 2,11,11). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Cz…

Montana

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Camp and civilian settlement in Moesia inferior, later Dacia ripensis (ILS 9275), formerly Mihajlovgrad, now M. (NW Bulgaria). An important military base from the 1st/2nd cents. AD, raised to a municipium around AD 161-163. Fortifications were built in the 3rd cent. against Gothic assaults. Evidence of continuity of settlement even into late antiquity. Inscriptions, coin finds. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR K 34 Sofia, 1976, 88  V. Velkov, G. Alexandrov, Epigraphische Denkmäler aus M. (Monta…

Napoca

(369 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Municipium and colony in Dacia Porolissensis (Νάπουκα/ Nápouka: Ptol. 3.8.4; cf. Napu[ce]nses CIL III 7996; N. in Lat. sources), the modern Cluj (Klausenburg/Kolozsvár, Romania), on the site of a prehistoric (Dacian) settlement (the place-name is evidently of Daco-Getic origin). The sources do not supply us with any information about the history of N. prior to Trajan's conquest of Dacia (AD 101/2 and 105/6). N.'s significanc…

Moge(n)tiana

(163 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement in Pannonia superior on the Savaria-Aquincum road, to the north of the southwestern part of Lake Pelso ( Mogetiana: Itin. Anton. 233; Mogentinais: ibid. 263); probably modern Tüskevár (in the Veszprém-Devecser district of Hungary). From M. there was a branch road to Limusa and Sopianae. The Roman settlement grew up on the site of a Celtic one, but the indigenous element continued to play a role in the Roman period. Under Hadrian, M. became a municipium. There are records of a decurio, IIII viri and a flamen (CIL III 151881), a scriba (CIL III 4137 = 109…

Isthmus

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Ἰσθμός; Isthmós, ὁ ( ho) or ἡ ( )) means primarily any connecting link between two things (e.g. the neck, Pl. Ti. 69e); in a narrower sense, any strip of land between two seas, as i.e. the Thracian Chersonesus [1] (Hdt. 6,36), but especially the I. of Corinth (e.g. Hdt. 8,40; Thuc. 1,13,5; 108,2; 2,9,2; 10,3). This I. corresponds to the fundamental definition in two respects - it links, on the one hand, the Corinthian Gulf with the Saronic Gulf, on the other hand, central Greece with the Peloponnese. The…

Periplous

(737 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (περίπλους, 'circumnavigation', plural περίπλοι/ períploi), Greek description of a sea voyage and coast. In addition to explicit logbooks, many periploi were written as handbooks: these were limited to purely nautical issues, and recorded such features as harbour sites and points of anchorage, distances covered, climatic factors, and local peculiarities. The development of periplous-style literature reflects the significance of ancient voyages of discovery. Such voyages could be of political, economical, and military use, and were …

Tibiscum

(216 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia (Τιβίσκον/ Tibískon). Roman base in Dacia superior (Daci with map) on the upper Tibiscus (or Tibisia, modern Timiş), a left tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]; cf. Ptol. 3,8,10; 3,8,1; Iord. Get. 24,178; Geogr. Rav 4,14; 4,18; Tab. Peut. 7,4), modern Jupa (county of Caraş-Severin, Romania); on road from Viminacium via Lederata to Sarmizegetusa, where a road branched off to Dierna. In the camp of T., (320 m × 170 m) auxiliary units were stationed ( Cohors I Vindelicorum, Cohors I Sagittariorum, Num…

Bessapara

(91 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement on the road from Serdica to Philippopolis (It. Ant. 136; Procop. Aed. 4,11 Βεσούπαρον; Besoúparon), modern Sinitovo/Pazardžik, southern Bulgaria. Flourished in the imperial age. Thanks to its location, it retained its supraregional importance throughout late antique and the early Byzantine period. Its fortifications date from the time of Justinian I. Greek inscriptions and votive reliefs. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. Velkov, Gradât v Trakija i Dakija prez kâsnata antičnost, 1959, 109 (Bulgarian with German resumé: …

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Dinogetia

(177 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δινογέτεια; Dinogéteia). Roman fortification in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor) on the right bank of the lower Danube in a strategically important location north of Troesmis near the delta, modern Garvăn, Tulcea in Romania. A pre-Roman Geto-Dacian settlement is attested. In the Roman period the town (πόλις in Ptol. 3,8,2; 10,1) represented a significant starting-point for travel along the Pyretus into the Scythian hinterland. In the…

Ulmetum

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman vicus and fort, node of important roads in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Pantelimon de Sus (district of Constanţa in Romania; Dobrugea). The vicus presumably came into being under Traianus [1] (there is evidence of magistri and principes loci). The population was ethnically mixed (Bessi, Romans and a number of Greeks). Destroyed by the Slavs, U. was rebuilt by Iustinianus [1] I (Procop. Aed. 4,7,17).…

Daci, Dacia

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Kramer, Johannes (Trier)
(Roman province of Dacia). [German version] A. Origins The Dacian group of tribes originally settled an extensive territory north of the lower Danube; in the west it reached to the Pathisus (Theiss), in the east possibly to the Hierasus (Sireth) or the Pyretus (Pruth); it was bordered to the north by the crescent of the Carpathians. The D. were a Thracian people. The location of their settlements enabled them to enter into various kinds of relations with neighbouring peoples, e.g. the Scythians and Gepi…

Marcianopolis

(322 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Rome City founded by Trajan and named after his sister Marcia (cf. Zos.1,42,1; 4,10,3; Greek authors call it Μαρκιανούπολις; Markianoúpolis. M., modern Reka Devnia in north east Bulgaria, about 20 km west of Odessos, today's Warna, was the administrative centre of

Bononia

(430 words)

Author(s): Susini, Giancarlo (Bologna) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Now Bologna This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Villanova Culture | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt Now Bologna. Villanova Culture settlement on the Reno, above an earlier Late Bronze Age settlement, then an Etruscan city (mythological founder Ocnus: Serv. Aen. 10,198; Sil. Pun. 8,600), called Felsina (Plin. HN 3,115); necropolises, abundant production of steles. Important Celtic centre,…

Aravisci, Eravisci

(111 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the north of  Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN 3,148; Tac. Germ. 28); today the communities of Pest, Fejér and Tolna. Under Roman rule a   civitas (CIL III 10418; AE 1951, 15) governed by native principes (CIL III 3546). Used as auxiliary troops (AE 1944, 102; CIL XVI 112; 123); scarcely romanized. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. von Pannonien, 1936, 29 M. Pavan, La provincia romana della Pannonia Superior, in: Atti della Academia Nazionale dei Lincei 1955, Vol. 8/6, 427, 483, 502 f. A. Mócsy, Die Bevölkerung von Panno…

Tricciana

(68 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fort ( beneficiarii station?, approximately 296 m × 268 m) in Pannonia Inferior, station on the Sirmium - Carnuntum road (It. Ant. 267,7), modern Ságvár (megye of Somogy in Hungary). Finds of terra sigillata, cemetery (also with Christian burials). T. was still of significance in the 4th cent. AD. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 113  A. Moćsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 305 f.

Transaquincum

(90 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Small fort, probably originating under Commodus (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,65: Transiacinco), on the left bank of the Danube (Ister [1]), linked by means of a wooden bridge with Aquincum in the province of Pannonia inferior, now near Budapest-Rákospatak. Remains of buildings, a statue of Victoria, inscriptions, tiles of the legio IV Flavia and legio II Adiutrix are pres…

Mursella

(108 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Small town in Pannonia superior Small town in Pannonia superior, probably modern Kisárpás (district of Sopron-Csorna, Hungary), on the Savaria-Arrabona road, a municipium from the reign of Hadrian (?) (CIL III 4490). Burian, Jan (Prague) …

Surveyors

(545 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Marking out  fields or extensive farmlands, cities, temple districts and military camps and determining the directions of roads, aqueducts, etc., presupposed a number of measuring tasks which were carried out by technically trained surveyors. In Roman sources, from which our only  knowledge of the variety of problems of this specific discipline comes, these workers were termed, e.g. mensores ( agrorum), agrimensores, metatores, finitores and gromatici. The last term is derived from groma , the bearing apparatus used for measuring tasks. The Latin technical term comes from the Greek γνώμα/γνώμων ( gnṓma/gnṓmōn; by way of Etruscan?). Drawing boundaries was connected with a particular sacred procedure for which  the augurs were originally responsible. It is likely that surveyors initially served the augurs as auxiliary workers. The practice of surveying temple buildings and city districts evidently developed…

Zaldapa

(133 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ζάλδαπα/ Záldapa). Late Roman and early Byzantine settlement and fort (Iohannes Antiochenus FHG 4,32; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20; name probably Thracian) in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor). Formerly identified with Abrit(t)us, today Z. is equated with modern Abtaat to the southwest of Tropaeum Traiani (modern Adamclisi). There were road connections with Tropaeum Traiani, Scopis, Durostorum and Tomis. Z. was the birth-place of Vitalianus, a usurper against Anastasius [1] I. Towards the end of the 6th cent., the settlement was destroyed by Avari and Slavs.…
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