Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)" )' returned 96 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Vicesima

(488 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (derived from Lat. viginti, 'twenty'; literally, 'the twentieth part'). In Rome, V. was the term referring to five-per-cent taxes [IV]; esp. important were the V . manumissionum or libertatis (manumission tax) and the V. hereditatium (inheritance tax). According to the annalistic tradition (Liv. 7,16,7; on this [3]), the V. manumissionum or libertatis was already decided upon in 357 BC by the Roman army through a vote according to tribus near Sutrium and was afterwards approved by the Senate. Probably from the beginning, it was…

Foedus

(391 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Ceremonial treaty of peace and friendship between Rome and another state which is placed under the protection of the gods. By contrast to a truce ( indutiae) the foedus was drawn up for the long term ( pia et aeterna pax). The result of the foedus was a   societas or an   amicitia , Rome's partners were   foederati ,   socii or amici (the terms are not strictly differentiated). Originally the foedera were probably signed by the   fetiales in the form of a sponsio (Liv. 1,24); later their role was confined to supervising the religious formalities. The foedus was usually signed by…

Lex Irnitana

(446 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Only Latin city law extant in large sections, for a Latin municipium from the time of Domitian (end 1st cent. AD); found during illegal excavations in El Saucejo in the south of the modern province of Seville in southern Spain in 1981, and purchased by the authorities for the National Museum of Archaeology in Seville (initial publication: [2], with English translation; authoritative text: [4]). Of the original ten bronze tablets (H 58 cm, B 91 cm), six (III, V, VII-X) are almost completely extant, if also partially in pieces. We thus possess c. 70% of the entire text, ta…

Tabula Heracleensis

(256 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Herakleiensis). Bronze tablet (1·84 m × 0·38 m), broken into two parts, found in the area of ancient Heraclea [10] in Lucania. On the front sides of both parts, there are late 4th cent. BC regulations for the administration by public authorities of the estates of two temples, one of Dionysus and one of Athena. The end of a 1st cent. BC Latin text is preserved on the back of one of these tablets. Since the expected sanctio is missing, it can not be a law and therefore also not, as formerly presumed (as e.g. [1. 113-120]), a Caesarian l ex Iulia municipalis. The surviving pa…

Latin law

(922 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
( ius Latii). [German version] I. Before the dissolution of the Latin league Because of their common language and culture, Romans and Latins possessed largely identical legal systems. This fact was given precision in the foedus Cassianum . It included commercium and conubium , the right to the spoils in joint wars as well as the right to settle in other states of the Latin federation and to become citizens (basis of the exilium ). This legal status was also granted to newly founded Latin coloniae . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) II. As a legal status in the Imperium Romanum [German version] A. To th…

Res publica

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (literally: 'public matter', in contrast to res privata, 'private matter') is the sum of the possessions, rights and interests of the Roman state, where the term 'state' is understood not as an abstract concept separable from its citizenry, but as the concrete manifestation of the generality of its citizens: res publica est res populi (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39; ' res publica is the affair of the people'; Populus). Accordingly, res publica is not identifiable with the modern concepts of 'state' or 'constitution'; in its original meaning it denotes differen…

Lex Malacitana

(115 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Municipal law from the time of Domitian (end of the 1st cent. AD) for the Latin municipium Flavium Malacitanum, modern Málaga in southern Spain, of which a bronze tablet was found in 1861 with chs. 51-69 together with the lex Salpensana (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid). The text of chs. 59-69 is identical, with several differences, to that of the corresponding chs. in the lex Irnitana ; this would probably also apply to the rest of the law. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1964 ILS 6089 H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1…

Octoviri

(199 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A collegium of eight municipal officials (Municipium) in cities of eastern Central Italy: Amiternum, Nursia, Trebula Mutuesca, Interamnia Praetuttianorum and Plestia. From the end of the Republic, when octoviri are first documented epigraphically, for the most part the office broke down into individual groups. In Trebula Mutuesca, for instance, there were two VIIIviri duovirali potestate, VIIIviri aedilicia potestate, VIIIviri aerarii and VIIIviri fanorum each (CIL IX 4883, 4891, 4896). It is clear that the six-official scheme then usual in …

Tablettes Albertini

(117 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Archive of 53 (45 surviving) wooden tablets written in ink  from southern Numidia (between Capsa and Theveste), named after their publisher, E. Albertini: largely legal documents from the Vandal period (484-496 AD), predominantly sales of plots of land, providing important information on legal culture, language and above all the writing of the period. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography E. Albertini, Documents d'époque vandale découverts en Algérie, in: CRAI 1928, 301-303  Id., Actes de vente du Ve siècle trouvés dans la région de Tébessa (Algérie)…

Lapis Satricanus

(263 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Stone inscription, slightly damaged, of the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC, discovered in 1977 at Satricum (Latium) beneath the Temple of Mater Matuta, which was constructed around 500 BC. The inscription, one of the earliest in the Latin language, is readily legible: - - -iei steterai Popliosio Valesiosio/suodales Mamartei (‘dedicated by the companions of Publius Valerius to Mars’). The incomplete beginning is probably to be read as [med h]ei (‘me here’), the object thus addressing the reader (see [1]; less likely Sal]iei, see [2], or Iun]ei, see [3]). The inscriptio…

Sigla

(182 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Sigla, earlier notae, is the Latin name for abbreviations. Since the time of the Greeks, S. for names, titles, places etc. have been found on coins, conditioned by the small space available. In Greek inscriptions, on the other hand, S. are, at least in pre-Roman times,  extraordinarily rare. This is in stark  contrast to their extensive use amongst the Etruscans and above all the Romans, where some types of information - such as first names, tribus, former offices and set phrases fo…

Lex Salpensana

(95 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Municipal law from the time of Domitian (end of the 1st cent. AD) for the Latin municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Facialcazar near Utrera (province of Seville) in southern Spain, of which a bronze tablet with chs. 21-29 was found together with the lex Malacitana (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid) in 1861. The text is, with some differences, identical to the corresponding chs. in the lex Irnitana . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1963 ILS 6088 H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1984, no. 59 (German translation).

Provincia

(1,263 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Meaning of the word The etymological connection of Latin provincia (‘province’) with pro- vincere (‘defeat beforehand’) in Festus (253: “provinciae appellantur quod populus Romanus eas provicit, i.e. ante vicit”) is not plausible and probably based on a popular etymology. Likewise, Isidore’s explanation of provinciae as overseas territory ‘far from’ ( procul) Italy is no more convincing (Isid. Orig. 14,5,19: “procul positas regiones provincias appellaverunt”). The most probable link is with proto-Germanic * fro, ‘lord’ [1. 377 f.]. However, the meaning o…

Quadragesima

(382 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (sc. pars). The quadragesima (τεσσαρακοστή/ tessarakostḗ, 'one fortieth') was a toll at the rate of 21/2% of the declared value of traded goods levied at the Roman imperial frontier or at customs frontiers within the empire. The term denotes, in particular, the import and export duties in the customs regions of Asia, Gaul and Hispania, but from a relatively early date, quadragesima could be used to refer simply to any toll(Quint. Decl. 359). While the customs region in Asia probably comprised only that province (ILS 1330; quadragesima portuum Asiae: ILS 1862), the Ga…

Quattuorviri

(440 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
Colleges of civil servants in Rome, Italy and the west of the Roman empire, consisting of four ( quattuor) persons ( viri) who could be charged with a variety of duties. [German version] I. Rome 1) The college of the quattuorviri viarum curandarum (initially probably called quattuorviri viis in urbe purgandis) had the task of providing for the street cleaning within the city walls. They belonged to the 'twentymen' ( vigintiviri), a group of offices held by young senators prior to the first magistrateship of the c ursus honorum . The nature of their task makes t…

Pomerium

(595 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The pomerium was the line, important in religious law, which at Rome and its colonies ( coloniae ) divided the urbs from the ager, i.e. the city in the strictest sense from its surrounding territories. Even in antiquity, the meaning of the word was obscure. According to point of view, it was etymologically explained as the line 'behind' ( post or pone murum) or 'in front of' ( promoerium) the city wall (Varro Ling. 5,143 and Gell. NA 13,14,1 versus Fest. 295), but neither etymology is likely to be tenable The establishment of the pomerium constituted the climax of a city f…

Pagus

(449 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Pl. pagi, etymologically related to pangere and pax; 'region with fixed borders'). The Latin pagus refers to the non-urbanized 'district', whose population lived in individual farms and villages ( vici; see vicus ), possibly with one or more oppida ( oppidum ) serving as a refuge; the pagus was the customary form of settlement for many Italian tribes, esp. the Oscan population of the mountainous regions of Central Italy [4] and among the Celts of Upper Italy [2]. The Romans used pagus as the designation for the subdivision of an urban territory. The pagi in the Roman Con…

Ordo

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
in Latin referred both to an order (e.g. the marching order or that of a legal process) as well as to groups or corporations, into which several or many persons were organized (also in the plural ordines), e.g. the Roman equites ( ordo equester). [German version] I. Procedural law In a procedural context the term ordo is traditionally used in the composition of the ' ordo iudiciorum' (Cod. Iust. 7,45,4). It signified the proper types of legal procedure (cf. still today: 'proper' jurisdiction) both of the formulary procedure ( formula ) as well as of the actions at law proceedings ( legis actio

Senatus consultum de Bac(ch)analibus

(539 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Edict of the consuls Q. Marcius [I 17] Philippus and Sp. Postumius [I 8] Albinus, on the basis of a Senate ruling ( senatus consultum ) of 7 October 186 BC, ordering the suppression of the Bacchanalia in Rome and Italy (ll. 2 f.). The sole surviving copy of the edict, found at Tiriolo (province of Catanzaro) in 1640, is directed towards the authories in the Bruttian ager Teuranus (ll. 30), and orders official announcements to be made on at least three market days (l. 22 f.). The bronze tablet, measuring 27 x 28 cm and contained in a Baroque frame…

Monumentum Ancyranum

(573 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Among the documents left behind by Augustus and read out in the Senate after his death in AD 14 was an index rerum a se gestarum (‘Report of Actions’), which was then published on two bronze tablets set up in front of the Mausoleum Augusti (Suet. Aug. 101,4; Cass. Dio 56,33 and R.Gest.div.Aug. prooem.; on the setting up of the tablets and their reconstruction see [8. 6 fig.]). A copy of this text with a Greek translation was attached to the temple of the imperial cult in Ancyra (modern Ankara), the capita…
▲   Back to top   ▲