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Tervanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Civitas, capital of the Morini (Tab. Peut. 2,2;  It. Ant. 376; 378 f.: Tarvenna; Ptol. 2,9,8: Ταρουάννα/ Tarouánna), which developed at a ford across the Leie/Lys from a river island to the northern bank. Archaeological finds remain lacking, since the vieille ville was razed in 1553 at the behest of Charles V; the modern town of Thérouanne (in the département of Pas-de-Calais) is farther to the south. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography R. Delmaire, Notes sur l'évolution urbaine de Thérouanne, in: Rev. archéologique de Picardie 1984, 223-228  Id. et al., Le Pa…

Mosa

(431 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River, present-day R. Maas River, modern name Maas, which rises in Germania superior in the land of the Lingones, on the plateau of Langres (differently Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: in the Vosges), then flows northwards through Belgica, cuts through the Ardennes shortly before Germania inferior and arrives at the Mare Germanicum in the land of the Batavi. The apparently contradictory information from classical authors, as to whether the M. flowed directly into the sea (Plin. HN. 4,100f.; Ptol. 2,9,3) or via the left arm of the Rhine, the Waal, (Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: Vacalus; …

Beda

(111 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Today's Bitburg, vicus located on a naturally elevated site along the Roman road Augusta Treverorum -- Colonia (It. Ant. 372,4), centre of the Treverian pagus of the Bedenses. Inscriptions indicate that B. sported a lively theatre (CIL XIII 4132; BRGK 40, 1959, 125,8) and activities of   iuniores (CIL XIII 4131). After B.'s destruction around AD 275/6, it was newly built in the 4th cent. as a military fort with oval surrounding walls (two hectares) and was i…

Durocortorum

(572 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Limes | Limes | Rome | Batavian Revolt Capital of the Gallo-Roman civitas of the Remi; modern Reims, on the northern edge of Champagne (Ptol. 2,9,6; 8,5,6); whether it should be identified with the centre of the autonomous Remi (Caes. Gall. 6,44) remains an open question. After sporadic settlement since the end of the Hallstatt period it expanded during La Tène III. In the course of the 1st cent. BC an oppidum arose, c. 90 ha. in area, with a massive earth rampart and ditch and surrounded by a second co…

Matrona

(726 words)

Author(s): Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Term used in family law Under Roman law of the Republican period, there was a difference between the matrona as the legal wife and the mater familias, the wife who was in the manus of her husband and thus belonged to his family (Gellius 18,6,8-9). This difference disappeared along with the marriage with manus ( Marriage), and since Augustus the terms matrona and mater familias are interchangeable in legal texts. In social terms, the word matrona expresses the public function of an honourably wed wife, which in early times possibly corresponded to the functions of the patr…

Lacus Lemanus

(161 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Largest of the Alpine lakes (581 km2), modern Lake Geneva. Documented by Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 8,1; 3,1,1; Str. 4,1,11; 6,6; 11; Luc. 1,396; Mela 2,74; 79; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2; Amm. Marc. 15,11,16. It. Ant. 348,2: lacus Lausonius; Tab. Peut. 3,2: lacus Losanenses. It was the border between Gallia Belgica or Germania superior and Gallia Narbonensis and thus separated the Helvetii in the north from the Allobroges in the south. In Genava harbour installations have been established through dendrochronological methods for the…

Scaldis

(202 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 6,33; Plin. HN 4,98; 105; Geogr. Rav. 263,6: Scaldea; Ptol. 2,9,3; 9: Ταβούλλα/ Taboúlla), modern Schelde (in French Escaut). It rises on Mont Saint Martin near Augusta Viromanduorum (modern Saint Quentin in the department of Oise), flows through Camaracum (modern Cambrai) and Turnacum (modern Tournai) and separates the civitates of the Atrebates [1] and the Menapii on its left bank from that of the Nervii on its right bank. In the region near its mouth (Plin. loc. cit.), which was settled by Ge…

Mosomagus

(104 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (‘Market on the Mosa’), present-day Mouzon (Dépt. Ardennes); town on the road from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum, between the civitates of the Remi and the Treveri on an island between two arms of the Mosa [1]. It was a significant  trading centre especially from the 2nd cent. AD. A fortification dating from Late Antiquity has been archaeologically authenticated. Musmagenses under a magister equitum inter Gallias  are documented (Not. Dign. Occ. 7,105); Merovingian coins mention Mosomo castri. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography J.-P. Levant, Mouzon…

Bellovaci

(109 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica (Picardy region) south of the Ambiani in the Thérain valley (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5). Beauvais ( Caesaromagus), once the capital of the civitas, and the surrounding Beauvaisis owe their names to the B. This mightiest tribe of the  Belgae was defeated by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,5; 2,13-15). They were hesitant participants in the revolt led by  Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75), but in the following year, they organized resistance against Rome (Caes. B Gall. 8,6…

Belgae

(762 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
(Βελγικοί; Belgikoí: Cass. Dio 39,1; 40,42; Βέλγαι; Bélgai: Str. 4,1,1). [German version] A. Origins According to Caesar's division of Gallia into three population groups (Caes. B Gall. 1,1), the B. were the one settling between the Seine, Marne, North Sea and Rhine; their southern spread is not specified. Little can be said with certainty about the origins of the B. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, tribal groups, presumably from Jutland and the Baltic region, invaded this region (Mela 3,36; 57; Amm. Ma…

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…

Scarponna

(270 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman bridge station, modern Scarponne near Dieulouard in the département of Meurthe et Meuse, on a route from the Rhodanus (Rhone) to the Rhenus (Rhine) between Divodurum (modern Metz) and Tullum (modern Toul), where the Roman road crossed the four branches of the Mosella on bridges (It. Ant. 365,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Scarbonna; CIL XIII 9050). The beginning of the Gallo-Roman vicus of the civitas of the Mediomatrici (no traces of pre-Roman settlement) can be viewed in the context of the extension of the traffic network at the beg…

Iura

(221 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 1,6,1; 1,8,1; Iurensis, Iorensis, Sidon. Apoll. Epist. 4,25,5; Greg. Tur. vit. patr. 1; Iures, Plin. HN 3,31; 4,105; 16,197; Ἰόρας/ Ióras, Ἰουράσιος/ Iourásios, Str. 4,3,4; 4,6,11; Ἰουρασσός/ Iourassós, Ptol. 2,9,2; 2,9,10). Mountain chain, c. 250 km long and up to 70 km wide, stretching in an arch shape from the Rhône at the Lac du Bourget, in a northerly/north-easterly direction to Baden in Switzerland. According to Caesar and Strabo, it formed the frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani…

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Catalauni

(78 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A tribal group of Gallia Belgica, who probably originally settled in the area of the Remi, in the modern Champagne. Its name and its capital of the same name, modern Châlon-sur-Marne, are only mentioned by later authors (Amm. Marc. 15,11,10; 27,2,4; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 274; Not. Gall. 6,4; Durocatalauni: It. Ant. 361). The  Catuvellauni, who migrated to southern Britannia, are probably part of the same tribal group.  Campi Catalauni Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Solicia

(143 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Place in Gallia Belgica, modern Soulosse-sous-Saint-Élophe, on the road from the Rhodanus to the Rhenus between Andematunnum and Tullum (modern Toul) in the territory of the Leuci (It. Ant. 358,9; CIL XIII 4679); another name was Solimariaca, derived from a deity Solima or Solimara (It. Ant. 385,8; CIL XIII 4681; 4683). Inscriptions provide information on trade and industry (CIL XIII 4678-4703; [1. 4845-4890; 2]). In the 4th century AD a castrum was built on the Saint Élophe hill. In the Carolingian period S. was the main town of the Pagus Solocensis. Schön, Franz (Reg…

Tres Tabernae

(398 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Town between Aricia and Forum Appii Town between Aricia and Forum Appii (modern Faiti) on the via Appia (Cic. Att. 1,13; 2,10; 2,12; It. Ant. 107,3; Tab. Peut. 6,1) where it crosses the road Antium - Satricum - Norba [1], located south-east of modern Cisterna. In TT, members of the Roman Christian community encountered Paulus [2] on his trip to Rome (Acts 28,15). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] City of the Mediomatrici City of the Mediomatrici with the rank of a vicus (CIL XIII 11648), modern Saverne (Dép. Bas Rhin) on …

Menapii

(483 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People of the North Sea coast of what is now Flanders, originally also north of the Rhine delta (Caes. B Gall. 4,4,2; Strab. 4,3,4). In 56/5 BC, the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri crossed the Rhine, driving the M. out of their homelands on the right bank of the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,4). The frontier of the C ivitas Menapiorum formed after their subjugation by Rome in 53 BC (stages of conquest 58 BC, Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 56 BC, Caes. B Gall. 3,9,10; 3,28f.; Cass. Dio 39,44; 55 BC, Caes. Gall. 4,22,5; 38,3; 53 BC, Caes. Gall. 6,5,6) ran al…

Raeti, Raetia

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ethnography of the Raeti The oldest, indirectly transmitted information about the R. comes from Cato [1], who praises Raetian wine (Serv. Georg. 2,95; Plin. HN 14,16; 67; Str. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); this was produced, as can be deduced from Plin. loc. cit., in the region of Verona. Ancient historiographers suggest repeatedly that the R. were in fact Etruscans who, having been driven out of Upper Italy by the invading Celts, had conquered the Alps under their eponymous ancestor Raetus and founded the race of the R. (Plin…

Titelberg

(460 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Celtic oppidum in the western area of the Treveri near Pétange (Luxembourg) on the southern edge of the Ardenne mountains, c. 100 m above the valley of the Chier (a side arm of the Meuse), situated on a rocky ledge which served as the settlement area (43 ha). From the 1st half of the 1st cent. BC, the area was secured along the edges of the cliff with a fortification wall (2700 m) and with a barrier in the shape of a murus Gallicus at the narrowest connection to the plateau behind it, later with a 'Belgian type' wall. Two gates connected by…
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