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Thesproti, Thesprotia

(207 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεσπρωτοί/ Thesprōtoí, Θεσπρωτία/ Thesprōtía). One of the three main tribes of Epirus with an area of settlement between the river Thyamis in the north, the Gulf of Ambracia as far as the river Aphas (modern Louros) in the southeast and the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos) in the west. In Hom. (Od. 14,314-320; 16,425-427), the T. are mentioned, particularly the oracle of the dead, nekyomanteíon, of Ephyra [3]; the coastal city of Buthrotum is described by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 105 as a pólis . Ancient authors (Str. 7,7,11; Hdt. 2,56) describe the T. as …

Tomarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόμαρος/ Tómaros, also Τμάρος/ Tmáros). A sacred mountain (1972 m elevation) to the west of Dodona (Str. 7,7,11; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 319; Plin.  HN 4,2), now again Tómaros (formerly Olytsika). Derived from T. are Τμάριος/ Tmários, Τομαριάς/ Tomariás and Latin Tomarius as epithets of Zeus and the sacred oak in Dodona, and probably the term τομοῦροι/ tomoûroi for oracle priests [1. 368 f.] Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967. Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 1, 86 f.

Brattia

(48 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Βραττία; Brattía). Liburnian island, also called Brettia (Steph. Byz. s.v. B.) or Cratea (Scyl. 23), modern Bra (Croatia), dependency of  Salona (12 km to the north), known for its goats, wine and quarries.  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Ptychia

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Πτυχία/ Ptychía). Island between Corcyra [1] and the mainland (Thuc. 4,46,3); probably modern Vido to the north of the modern town of Kerkyra. Recorded also at Ptol. 3,13,9 and Plin. HN 4,53. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s. v. P., RE 23, 1893 f.

Portunata

(60 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island and city of the same name in the sinus Flanaticus, the bay to the east of Histria (Plin. HN 3,140). Identified, but not beyond doubt [1], with Dugi Otok (in Croatia) [2]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s. v. P., RE 22, 400 2 J. Chapman, The Changing Face of Dalmatia, 1996, Index s.v. Dugi Otok.

Curictae

(86 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (also Curica, Tab. Peut.; Κυρικτική, Str. 2,5,20). Island off the Dalmatian coast (now Krk, Croatia) with two towns: Curictae (Κούρικον, Ptol. 2,16,13) near what is today the town of Krk and Fertinates (Φουλφίνιον, Ptol. loc.cit.) near modern Omisalj. Contested by the armies of Pompey and Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 3,10,5), since Augustus part of Illyricum. Claudius awarded the residents the ius Italicum (Plin. HN 3,139, tribus Claudia). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Gesellschaft in [...] Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1…

Ionios Kolpos

(217 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰόνιος κόλπος; Iónios kólpos), Adria (ὁ Ἀδρίας, Mare Adriaticum or s uperum), Ionian Sea. In contrast with the modern view, the Ionios Kolpos (IK) was seen by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 91f.) as starting from Istria, by Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 4) from the mouth of the Spines. In the south the name is occasionally transferred to the Sicilian Sea (Mela 2,37; 48; 110). Originally, Adria only referred to the innermost corner of the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Po and the settlement area of the Veneti, from the name of whose town  Atria, the name Adria a…

Echinades

(222 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἐχινάδες, Ἐχῖναι; Echinádes, Echînai). Archipelago off the SW coast of Acarnania and the mouth of the Achelous; today, it belongs to the nomos Cephallenia. The islands were largely uninhabited, but they were exploited economically (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51). Already in antiquity it was observed that the islands became joined to the mainland due to the  Achelous [1] depositing debris into the area (Hdt. 2,10; Thuc. 2,102; Scyl. 34; Str. 1,3,18; 10,2,19 [1; 2]). This phenomenon was a…

Cassiope

(160 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κασσιόπη; Kassiópē, Lat. Cassiope). Port on the north-eastern coast of  Corcyra (Korfu), modern Kassiopi. From Hellenistic times onwards (founded by Pyrrhus?) important staging point for the crossing to Italy, as used by Cicero in 50 BC (Cic. Fam. 16,9,1) and Nero in AD 66 (Suet. Nero 22,3). Zeus Kasios was venerated in C. (Plin. HN 4,52), as evident from coins [2] and inscriptions (ILS 4043; SEG 23, 395; 477) [1]. His temple was later built over with a three-naved basilica in the early Christian period [3; 4]. In late antique itineraries, C. ( Cassiape, Cassiope) is used…

Colentum

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian island (today known as Murter, Croatia), which belonged to the conventus of  Salona; Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,13,3; Geogr. Rav. 408,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 487 S. Čače, Colentum insula (Plinio Nat. Hist. 3,140), in: Diadora 10, 1988, 65-72.

Antigonea

(401 words)

Author(s): Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀντιγόνεια; Antigóneia). [German version] [1] City in Syria This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni In Syria (Str. 16,750; Diod. Sic. 20,47) at the Orontes. Founded by Antigonus in the year 307 BC. Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] City on the west coast of the Chalcidice On the west coast of the Chalcidice (at Hagios Pavlos?), probably founded by Antigonus [2] as a counterpoise to Cassandria (Potidaea). In a historical context only mentioned about 200 BC in a Delphic list of theorodokoi [1. 18, col. III, 76] and mentioned in the thir…

Athamania

(176 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀθαμανία; Athamanía). Region in the south-east of Epirus, in the Pindus range (Str. 7,7,8), bordering on Thessaly in the east (later counted as Thessalian: Str. 9,5,11; Steph. Byz. s.v. A.). During the 4th cent. BC, the Ἀθαμᾶνες ( Athamânes) joined the League of Corinth and Second Athenian Confederacy (Diod. Sic. 14,82; Nep. Tim. 2), and in the 3rd cent. BC, it was a member of the Epirote League. Under the rule of kings Theodorus and  Amynander (Pol. 4,16; Str. 9,4,11; [1]), A. became particularly important in the Macedonian Wars [2].   Koinon in the…

Cassope

(280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κασσώπη; Kassṓpē). City in south-western Epirus near the modern Kamarina, main city of the Thesprotian tribe of the Cassopaei (Κασσωπαῖοι, Str. 7,7,1; 7,7,5 and inscriptions; Κασσωποί, Scyl. 31); they settled in an area of about 900 km2 -- very fertile in its southern parts -- between the Gulf of Ambracia, the Ionian Sea and the Acheron (map: [6. 116]). Within this tribal territory lay the Elean colonies of Buchetium, Elatria, Pandosia, and Batiae (localization…

Achelous

(512 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Isler, Hans-Peter (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Greece's longest, most voluminous river (Ἀχελῷος; Achelôios). Greece's longest, most voluminous river, in the territory of the Aitoli and the Acarnanes; original name Thoas, from the Middle Ages Aspropotamos, today again Acheloos; sources in the territory of the Dolopes (Thuc. 2,102,2) near Mount Lacmon in the Pindus; fed there by five tributaries; today greatly transformed by dams. Coming from the territories of the Agraei and the Amphilochi (Str. 10,2,1), its bed widened (nowadays …

Aetolians, Aetolia

(2,622 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Αἰτωλοί, Αἰτωλία; Aitōloí, Aitōlía). [German version] A. Topography Largest region (4500 km2), most important tribe of central Greece. Existing sources only allow a limited definition of area where the Aetolians first settled, and of the phases of their early expansion. Tribes of the Aetolian ethnic group lived between the mountain ranges of Mount Vardousia and Mount Gkiona in the east (modern administrative district of Phocis), Mount Thymphrestus in the north (height 2319m, modern district of Evritania),…

Anactorium

(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀνακτόριον; Anaktórion). Corinthian foundation of the 7th cent. BC (Str. 10,2,8; FGrH 90 Nicolaus F 57,7), in co-operation with  Corcyra (Thuc. 1,55,1) [different in 1. 6-48, 132-148] on the south coast of the gulf of Ambracia. Ports in the gulf and the Ionic Sea near the polis sanctuary of  Actium (Scyl. 34). In 479 BC, A. fought alongside the Greeks at  Plataeae (Hdt. 9,28,5; Paus…

Carnus

(66 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κάρνος; Kárnos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Apollo and Zeus see  Carnea Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island on the Acarnanian west coast Island on the Acarnanian west coast of Alyzeia, identified as the modern Calamus. Documentation: Scyl. 34; Plin. HN 4,53; Artem. in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W. M. Murray, The Coastal Sites of Western Akarnania, 1982 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 390-392.

Amaltheum

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμαλθεῖον; Amaltheîon). An unlocated country estate of T.  Pomponius Atticus in the Roman province of  Epirus, on the coast near Buthrotum (Cic. Leg. 2,3,7; Att. 1,13; 16,15). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité 1, 1987, 245-254.

Strophades

(93 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Στροφάδες; Strophádes). Two small, flat, barren, uninhabited islands belonging to Cyparissia [1] (Str. 8,4,3) located 44 km south of Zacynthos in the open sea, with the original name of Plotae (Mela 2,110; Plin. HN 4,55), Strophadia ever since the Roman Period (Hierocles, Synecdemus 648,10). According to legend, the sons of Boreas turned about there during their pursuit of the Harpies (aition for the place name in Apoll. Rhod. 2,285-297). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 5f.  Philippson/Kirsten, 541-545  L. Ro…

Aeolis

(298 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth in the imperial period Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth ( karpophóros) in the imperial inscriptions of Lesbos and Aegae; identified with Agrippina I and II (as Θεὰ Αἰολὶς Σεβαστή; Theà Aiolìs Sebastḗ, IG XII suppl. 134). She corresponds to the Αἰοληία θεά ( Aiolēía theá) mentioned in Alc. fr. 129 LP, who was worshipped together with Zeus and Dionysus Omestes in the main Lesbian sanctuary at Messa. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography L. Robert, Recherches épigraphiques V. (Inscriptions de L…
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