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Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Myscon

(43 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μύσκων/ Mýskōn). Syracusan, son of Menecrates; after the banishment of Hermocrates [1] in 410 BC, he took over command of the Syracusan fleet off Miletus along with two other strategoi (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29; Peloponnesian War). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Philomelus

(290 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Φιλόμηλος; Philómēlos). [German version] [1] Son of Iasion and Demeter Son of Iasion and Demeter, brother of the wealthy Pluto (different Hes. Theog. 969f.) and father of Pareas, the founder of Parium (but Parios, son of Iasion, is more frequently named as the founder). P. lived in extreme poverty and was regarded as the inventor of the wagon, which he harnessed to two oxen. In recognition of his ingenuity his mother placed him amongst the stars as Bootes (Petellides of Knossos in Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Leader of the Phocian League S…

Paches

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πάχης/ Páchēs). Athenian, son of Epicurus, sent in late autumn 428 BC as a  stratēgós with 1000 hoplites against the disloyal city of Mytilene, which he captured after several months of siege (Thuc. 3,18,3-3,28; Diod. Sic. 12,55,5-10). After operations off the Ionian coast, he also subjugated Antissa, Pyrrha and Eresus (Thuc. 3,28,3; 35,1-2), all on Lesbos [1. 171f.]. On his return, P. was indicted in Athens (at the instigation of Cleon [1]). (The accusation, expressed in Anth. Pal. 7,614, of …

Hegesistratus

(274 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγησίστρατος; Hēgēsístratos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sigeum, around 530 BC Son of  Peisistratus and the Argive Timonassa (Hdt. 5,94; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 17,3). Installed as tyrant of Sigeum by his father around 530 BC, he defended the city as a colony of the Peisistratids against the Mytilenaeans (Hdt. loc. cit.).  Tyrannis Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 11793,VI (B) M. Stahl, Aristokraten und Tyrannen, 1987, 220f. Traill, PAA 481600. [German version] [2] Seer in the army of Mardonius, 5th cent. BC H. of Elis, son of Tellias. Fled from Spartan captivity an…

Onetor

(113 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνήτωρ/ Onḗtōr). Respected Athenian, eldest son of Philonides, from the deme of Melite, born c. 415 BC. Isocrates (Isoc. Or. 15,93) praises the financial expenditures of his pupil O. for the polis (especially liturgies; Heliodorus FGrH 373 F6 mentions a choragic votive offering). According to Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 30,10), his wealth amounted to more than 30 talents. His sister's second husband was Aphobus, which is why O. became involved in the court case concerning Demosthenes' [2] guardians proceedings and …

Malecidas

(90 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μαλεκίδας/ Malekídas, also Μαλκίτης/ Malkítēs). Theban, Boeotarch during the Theban hegemony (IG VII 2408), who, after the death of Pelopidas in 364 BC, led an army of 7,000 hoplites and 700 cavalry, together with Diogeiton, against Alexander [15] of Pherae. Alexander was forced to relinquish his control over the Thessalian cities and obliged to supply troops (Plut. Pel. 35). M. is apparently identical with the Boeotarch Malgis, mentioned by Pausanias (9,13,6) in connection with the Battle of Leuctra. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Heg…

Hestiodorus

(44 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἑστιόδωρος; Hestiódōros). Son of Aristoclides, Athenian strategos, besieged Potidaea from 432/1 BC accepting the city's capitulation in winter 430/29 (Thuc. 2,70,1). He died shortly afterwards in the battle for Spartolus (Thuc. 2,79). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1381 Traill, PAA 423910.

Pelopidas

(407 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πελοπίδας; Pelopídas). Distinguished Theban, son of Hippocles, after to Epaminondas the outstanding commander and politician of the Boeotian League during the Theban hegemony (Boeotia, Boeotians with map). In 382 BC, P. was a young man: his year of birth was therefore probably around 410. As a supporter of the democratic faction of Ismenias [1], he fled to Athens after the Spartan occupation of the Kadmeia (Thebes), from where he apparently organized the resistance to the regime of Leontiades [2] (Plut. Pe…

Nicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Νίκων; Níkōn). [German version] [1] Theban military leader, 413 BC Theban leader of 300 Boeotian hoplites who, together with some Spartan units, crossed over to Sicily in 413 BC in order to defend Syracuse (Thuc. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 4th/3rd cent. BC Comedy writer of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC; there is a preserved fragment of a play Kitharōdós, in which apparently the direct speech of a non-Greek slave is quoted (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [German version] [3] Co-founder of the anti-Roman alliance of…

Hippocleides

(115 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλείδης; Hippokleídēs). Son of Teisander, Athenian from the family of the Philaids ( Philaidai). Around 575 BC, he sought the hand in marriage of  Agariste [1], daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, but was unsuccessful despite good prospects, losing out to the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonidae)  Megacles due to a social affront (Hdt. 6,126-130; Ath. 14,628d) [1]. During the archonship of H., the Panathenaea were established, probably in 566/5 BC [2. 57f.] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 2; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 22). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Stein-Hölkesk…

International treaties

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] I. General International treaties (IT) are official and binding agreements under international law between two or more subjects of international law, which are legally binding for the entire citizenship in question. They were stipulated orally or in writing; they took the form of unilateral, bi- or multilateral agreements, and always implied the recognition of the other party under international law. IT were often the result of preliminary negotiations; they required ratification by…

Timomachus

(495 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Τιμόμαχος/ Timómachos). [German version] [1] From Thebes, commander in the Peloponnesian War commander of the Theban Aegidae, claimed to have supported the Spartans with his army in the conflict against Amyclae [1] and to have instructed them in the art of warfare. His bronze armour was displayed at the Hyacinthia (Hyacinthus) and T. himself was always highly honoured in Sparta (Aristot. fr. 532 Rose). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Nafissi, La nascita del kosmos, 1991, 324-326. [German version] [2] Athenian strategist from Acharnae, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategist …

Lysagoras

(74 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυσαγόρας; Lysagóras) from Paros, son of Teisias. According to Herodotus (6,133,1), the original motive for the Paros expedition by Militiades in 489 BC was personal grudge against L., who supposedly had previously slandered Militiades to the Persian commander Hydarnes [2]. A source hostile to Militiades is presumably the basis for the report [1]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. H. Kinzl, Miltiades' Parosexpedition in der Geschichtsschreibung, in: Hermes 104, 1976, 280-307.

Timasion

(64 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμασίων; Timasíōn) from Dardanus in the Troas. After the battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC and the murder of Clearchus [2] elected a leader of the Greek mercenaries of the army of the young Cyrus [3]; equestrian leader in the March of the Ten Thousand against Artaxerxes [2] (Xen. An. 3,1,47 et passim). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xen. An., 1995, 157 f.

Miltas

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μίλτας; Míltas). Thessalian, seer and occasional member of the Platonic academy ( Akadḗmeia ); in 357 BC he took part in the campaign of Dion [I 1] against Dionysius [2], and interpreted the lunar eclipse (August 8) which preceded departure as a portent of the fall of Dionysius (Plut. Dion 22,6f.; 24,2-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography K. Trampedach, Platon, die Akademie und die zeitgenössische Politik, 1994, 111.

Nicomenes

(105 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Νικομένης; Nikoménēs). [German version] [1] Democrat accused by Agoratus, 404 BC Athenian, one of the democrats who were denounced by Agoratus in 404 BC and were executed because of their opposition to the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by Theramenes (Lys. 13,23; 38). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, around 400 BC Athenian, at whose request the citizenship law introduced by Aristophon [2] was modified to the effect that it was only applicable to those children who were born after the archonship of Eucleides (403/2 BC) (sch…

Mnaseas

(244 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Μνασέας; Mnaséas). [German version] [1] Politician Phocian, father of Aristotélous hetaíros (‘companion of Aristoteles [6]’) Mnason (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 11; Aristot. Pol. 1304a 10-14). Aristotle says the cause of the Third “Sacred War” was a dispute between M. and Euthycratus over an heiress, but this explanation (probably originating from Mnason) is considered inadequate. After the death of Onomarchus, in 352/1 BC Phayllus appointed M. guardian of Phalaecus and stratēgós, but he was killed shortly afterwards during a nocturnal attack by the Boeotians (Diod. 16,38,6f.). Beck, Ha…

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Sparton

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σπάρτων; Spártōn). Theban general of the Boeotian contingents that inflicted a heavy defeat on the Athenians at Coronea in 447 BC. The victory levelled the way for the founding of the Boeotian League (Boeotia B.). S.'s name alludes to the Sparti (Plut. Agesilaos 19,2; cf.  Thuc. 1,113,2; Diod.  Sic. 12,6,2; Xen. Mem. 3,5,4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography D. R. Shipley, A Commentary on Plutarch's Life of Agesilaos, 1997, 239.
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