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Eutropius

(731 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Author of a Lat. historical work Author of a Latin historical work, which according to its dedication was written at the instruction of Emperor Valens. The text indicates that the author had taken part in Julian's Persian campaign (10,16,1). In the intitulatio of a MS, he is referred to as a magister memoriae. It is still questionable whether he is identical with another Eutropius of the 2nd half of the 4th cent., whose name appears in other sources: possibly he was proconsul Asiae in 371/2, praef. praet. Illyrici in 380-1, and consul posterior in 387. The historical …

Magnillus

(50 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Belonged to the circle associated with Symmachus, with whom he corresponded (Symmachus, Ep. 5,17-33). Governor of Liguria; in AD 391-393 vicarius in Africa, then indicted and acquitted; attested until 396 but no longer in an office, probably not a Christian. PLRE 1, 533. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Eudoxia

(218 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Εύδοξία; Eudoxía) [German version] [1] Wife of Arcadius, see Aelia [4] Wife of Arcadius, Augusta from AD 400 onwards; see  Aelia [4]. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Licinia E. Wife of Valentinianus III and Augusta Born in AD 422; daughter of  Theodosius II and  Eudocia [1]. From 424 engaged to be married to  Valentinianus III , from 437 married. Two daughters:  Eudocia [2] and  Placidia. 439 Augusta. Promoted the building of churches in Rome. It is hard to judge the extent of her influence on the court but presu…

Anicius

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Name of a family that came from Praeneste, which is documented there already in the Republican era. An Anician achieved the consulate in 160 BC (see [I 4]), but otherwise the tribe does not distinguish itself again in the Republic. In the imperial era, however, the gens blossomed; from the post-Diocletian era until the 4th cent. AD as an urban Roman family, and then, continued by the members of the female line, emerged as Christian aristocracy of great significance in the 5th cent [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A., C. Senator (middle of the …

Anthemius

(604 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis 405-414 AD Probably sent to Persia as an envoy in AD 383, comes sacrarum larg. (eastern region) in AD 400; magister officiorum (eastern region) at the latest in AD 404, cos. 405; at the latest from AD 406 patricius. A. gained considerable political influence in his role as praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 405-414, initially under Arcadius, later under the underage Theodosius II. He was a Christian, but looked upon pagan culture with an open mind [1. 82 f.]. Through the building of walls, he took…

Anatolius

(262 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio for Illyria, AD 356-360 Lawyer from Berytus. The recipient of many letters from  Libanius. From AD 356/7 until his death (360) he was praefectus praetorio for Illyria. Prior to that he was consularis Syriae (possibly 349), vicarius Asiae (352) and procos. urbis Constantinopolitanae (354). 355 he declined appointment to the position of praefectus urbi Romae (Lib. Ep. 391). He is perhaps identical with the agrarian writer Vindonius Anatolius. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Mag. utriusque mil. praesentalis, after AD 447 AD 433…

Arcadius

(544 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor (383-408 AD) Roman emperor (AD 383-1/05/408), born in 377 in Spain, son of Theodosius I. Educated by the pagan  Themistius and the Christian Arsenius; proclaimed Augustus on 19/01/383, since 394 (departure of Theodosius I into war against Eugenius) ruler of the East, in 395 together with Honorius successor of Theodosius I. A. is considered to have been subject to influence: in the beginning the praefectus praetorio  Rufinus who was murdered in 395, conducted his affairs, later the praepositus sacri cubiculi  Eutropius, who…

Donatus

(1,803 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns (Erlangen/Nürnberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[1] D. of Carthage, Donatists [German version] A. Definition Donatism is a derogatory term for an ethically radical Christian movement that attached itself to traditional elements in the African Church in Roman North Africa in the 4th-7th cents. AD. It led to a schism in the African Church during disputes over the consequences of the Diocletian persecutions of Christians, i.e. the question of how to deal with lay persons and clerics who had given in to the governmental authorities and in some way had become lapsi, e.g. had surrendered Holy Scriptures ( traditores). A separate Donatist …

Aurelianus

(953 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Aurelius A. Cos. suff. 180/182 AD Praetorian legate of Arabia under two Augusti (AE 1965, 23); cos. suff. between AD 180 and 182 (CIL VIII 10570=ILS 6870). PIR2 A 1424. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consular senator, executed around 217/18 AD Consular senator. His execution, demanded by the soldiers, was at first refused by Emperor  Macrinus (217-18) (Cass. Dio 78,12,4), but was probably carried out soon thereafter (Cass. Dio 78,19,1). PIR2 A 1425. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Imperator Caes. L. Domitius A. Augustus Born…

Hellebic(h)us

(85 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Bearer of a Germanic name; attested as comes et magister utriusque militiae per Orientem from AD 383 to 387; a proponent of euergetism in Antioch. Together with  Caesarius [3], in 387 conducted the investigations after the Antioch statue revolt.  Libanius thanked him with a panegyric for having achieved lenient actions (Or. 22). H. corresponded with Libanius (Ep. 2; 868; 884; 898; 925) and  Gregorius [3] of Nazianzus (Ep. 225). Probably a Christian [1]. (PLRE 1,277f.). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 v. Haehling 265-267.

Spectacles

(2,627 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
I. Principal types [German version] A. Greece Fundamental to Greek spectator events was the distinction between gymnic, hippic and musical agons (Competitions, artistic). All games emerged from cult, whether of the dead or of the gods. They remained connected with the cult and took place in conjunction with festivals (Festivals, ‘Festival culture’). The presentation of gymnic and hippic games (e.g. chariot races, Hom. Il. 23,257-538; Sports festivals), and of choral agons (Hom. Od. 8,256-366) is already found in Homer. Hesiod attests to a musical agon (Hes. Op. 650-659). In the Arc…

Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Constantinus

(2,742 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] C. I. The Great, Roman Emperor AD 306-337 ‘the Great’, Roman emperor from AD 306-337. Born c. 275 (Euseb. Vita Const. 4,53; Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,16; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,15, differently Euseb. Vita Const. 2,51) at Naïssus (Anon. Vales. 2) the son of Constantius [1] I and of Helena. After his father was made Caesar, Constantine served on the staff of  Diocletian and of  Galerius (Pan. Lat. 7[6] 5,3; Lactant. De mort. pers. 18,10; Anon. Vales. 2). In 305 he left the court of Galerius to jo…

Placidia

(163 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] See Galla [3] Placidia See Galla [3] Placidia. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Relative of the imperial family (5th cent. AD) Younger daughter of Valentinianus [4] III and Eudoxia [2], b. AD 441/2. First betrothed to the son of Aetius [5], Petronius Maximus [II 8] apparently forced her into a marriage with his son ([2. 180f.]). In 455, she was taken hostage by the Vandals as they overran Rome; she was released to Constantinople in 462. Probably already married to Anicius [II 15] Olyb…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Eucherius

(333 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Uncle of emperor Theodosius I Flavius E. was an uncle of emperor Theodosius I (Them. Or. 16,203d). He is possibly identical with the comes sacrarum largitionum of AD 377-379 (Cod. Theod. 1,32,3; 10,20,9). In 381 he was consul (Them. ibid.). He was still alive in 395 (Zos. 5,2,3). PLRE 1, 288 E. (2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Stilicho, about AD 390 Flavius E., the son of  Stilicho and Serena, born AD 389 in Rome. He first lived in Constantinople, then at the court of  Honorius, where he became tribunus et notarius. In 400 he became engaged wi…

Lucianus

(4,158 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Λουκιανός; Loukianós). [German version] [1] L. of Samosata Greek rhetorical-satirical writer, 2nd cent. AD Important Greek rhetorical-satirical writer of the Roman Imperial period. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Life and career L. was born between AD 115 and 125 [4. 8] in Samosata on the Euphrates, on the eastern edge of Roman Syria. Περὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου ἦτοι Βίος Λουκιανοῦ (‘The Dream, or Lucian's Life’, Somn.) portrays vividly (but not necessarily truthfully) L.'s decision for an education modelled on the example of the great classical authors ( paideía)…

Castinus

(82 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Flavius C., in 420/21 worked as a comes domesticus in Gaul; in 422 as mag. militum of the  Honorius he unsuccessfully fought the Vandals at the Baetica, he fell out with  Bonifatius who evaded him and went to Africa. In 423 C. probably supported the usurpation of  Iohannes and remained in office, becoming cos. in 424 but achieving no recognition in the East [1. 383]. Later C. fled -- supposedly to Africa (PLRE 2, 269f.). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 Bagnall.

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Eudocia

(467 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Εὐδοκία; Eudokía). [German version] [1] Aelia Eudocia. Original name Athenais. Came from a traditional background in Athens (her father was the rhetor Leontius) and had an excellent education. Allegedly at the instigation of  Pulcheria, she married  Theodosius II on 7 June 421; she was baptized for this purpose and given the name Aelia E. She was considered pious and increasingly exerted an influence on her husband, pushing aside Pulcheria. In 422 she gave birth to  Eudoxia [2] and before 431 to Flacc…
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