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Magnillus

(46 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] Gehört in das Umfeld des Symmachus, mit dem er korrespondierte (Symm. epist. 5,17-33). Statthalter von Ligurien; 391-393 n.Chr. vicarius in Africa, danach angeklagt, freigesprochen; bis 396 bezeugt, aber nicht mehr in einem Amt, wohl kein Christ. PLRE 1, 533. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Gomoarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] Germanischer Herkunft; 350 n.Chr. tribunus scutariorum; Anhänger des Vetranio, den er an Constantius [2] II. verriet. 360 magister militum des Caesars Iulianus; im Frühjahr 361 durch diesen abgesetzt, ging er zu Constantius II. über. 365/6 magister militum des Usurpators Prokopios, zu dessen Niederlage er durch seinen Abfall zu Valens entscheidend beitrug. PLRE 1, 397f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Aetius

(466 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Prätorianerpräfekt 425 n.Chr. 420 n. Chr. praef. urbis Constantinopoleos und 425 praef. praetorio; zw. 395-401 war er vielleicht proc. Achaeae. Wohl noch als praef. urbis legte er 421 eine Zisterne in Konstantinopel an (PLRE 2, 19 f., vgl. 30). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [2] mag. utriusque militiae praesentalis (429-454 n. Chr.) Geb. um 390 n. Chr. als Sohn des mag. equitum Gaudentius, christl., als Jugendlicher Geisel bei den Westgoten und den Hunnen. Seine guten Kontakte zu den Hunnen blieben lan…

Lupicinus

(137 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Consul 367 n. Chr. Als magister equitum per Gallias dem Iulianus [11] beigegeben, kämpfte L. 359 n.Chr. gegen Alamannen, 360 gegen Scoten und Picten; L. wurde von Iulianus als möglicher Gegner inhaftiert. Iovianus machte ihn 363 zum mag. equitum per Orientem; 365/6 war er in diesem Amt an der Niederschlagung der Usurpation des Prokopios gegen Valens beteiligt; 367 Consul. Christ. PLRE 1520f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [2] comes rei militaris per Thracias 377 n. Chr. Ging aus der schola gentilium hervor, 377 n.Chr. comes rei militaris per Thr…

Hellebic(h)us

(83 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] Träger eines germanischen Namens; als comes et magister utriusque militiae per Orientem von 383 bis 387 n.Chr. bezeugt; in Antiocheia euergetisch tätig. Leitete zusammen mit Caesarius [3] 387 die Untersuchungen nach dem Antiochener Statuenaufstand. Libanios dankte ihm mit einem Panegyrikos dafür, daß er ein mildes Verfahren erreicht habe (or. 22). H. korrespondierte mit Libanios (epist. 2; 868; 884; 898; 925) und Gregorios [3] von Nazianzos (epist. 225). Wohl Christ [1]. (PLRE 1,277f.). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 v. Haehling 265-267.

Chrysaphios

(119 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] (Χρυσάφιος). Chrysaphius qui et Ztummas, Eunuch. Unter Theodosius II. praepositus sacri cubiculi, als erster Eunuch auch als spatharius bezeugt. Ihm wird nach dem Sturz des Kyros ein maßgeblicher Einfluß auf den Kaiser zugeschrieben; er soll sämtliche Konkurrenten auch mit unlauteren Mitteln zurückgedrängt haben. 449 n.Chr. plante Ch. einen Mordanschlag auf Attila, der jedoch publik wurde. Er besaß Einfluß genug, um der Auslieferung an die Hunnen zu entgehen. Im nestorianischen Streit unterstützt…

Pulcheria

(346 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the emperor Theodosius I and Flacilla Daughter of the emperor Theodosius I and Flacilla, born AD 377/8, died 385/6. Her funeral oration by  Gregorius [2] of Nyssa survives (Greg. Nyss. Or. 9,1,459-472). PLRE 1, 755. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Augusta in 414 Daughter of the emperor  Arcadius and his wife Eudoxia (Aelia [4]), born 399, died July 453, granddaughter of  Theodosius  I. After her father's death (408) she raised her brother (born 401)Theodosius II., made herself Augusta (Imperial…

Dalmatius

(366 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Fl. D. Half-brother of the Emperor Constantine I Son of  Constantius [1] and Theodora, half-brother of Constantine I. Nothing is known of his role in the initial period of Constantine's rule, although presumably he was given Toulouse as his abode during the tensions with Licinius in c. AD 320-324 (Auson. Prof. 16,11-12). Consul in 333, he was sent to Antioch at around the same time with the archaizing title of censor (Athan. c. Ar. 65,1ff.). There he was concerned with murder accusations against Athanasius. In Tarsus he had  Calocaerus burnt to d…

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Praetextatus

(153 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Roman cognomen ('boy dressed in a toga praetexta'). Epithet of L. Papirius [I 23] P. and in the Sulpicii family (Sulpicius); widespread in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Vettius Agorius P. Praefectus Urbi AD 265-267 c. AD 320-384. Having started his career as quaestor and praetor, he became corrector Tusciae et Umbriae before 362, as a favourite of Iulianus [11] proconsul Achaiae in 362/4, praefectus urbi in Rome in 365/7, then a praetorian prefect of Illyria, Italia, and Africa; designated a consul in 384; several times …

Honorius

(738 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] (Grand)father of emperor Theodosius I Listed in [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 48,1 as father of the emperor Theodosius I, but may have been his grandfather. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Elder brother of Theodosius I Elder brother of Theodosius I, probably related to  Maria, whose daughter was  Serena; both were taken into the emperor's household. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [3] Flavius H. West Roman emperor 393-423 AD, puer nobilissimus West Roman emperor AD 393-423, was born on 9 September AD 384 …

Bonifatius

(349 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Defended Marseille against Athaulf 413 AD B. distinguished himself in AD 413 in the defence of Marseilles against Athaulf ( Ataulfus), attested as tribune in Africa from AD 416/17, perhaps praepositus limitis; from AD 423 comes Africae. As he acted independently, he was suspected time and again of disloyalty to  Valentinianus III, and this led to military conflicts in 427-429; publicly confirmed by the emperor as comes in 429. At the same time B. was accused of having invited the Vandals into the country so as to defend his own position; he …

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Nepotianus

(177 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Son of Flavius N. (cos. AD 336) Son of the half-sister of Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], and Flavius N. ( cos. AD 336). As a member of the Constaninian dynasty, he rose up in Rome against Magnentius. He defeated the army of the latter's praef. praet., Anicius (or Anicetus), in Italy and claimed to be the ruler for a while (June 350), until Magnentius's magister officiorum, Marcellinus [5], defeated him. Magnentius's retribution against N.'s supporters was bloody. PLRE 1,624, No. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Father of the Emperor Nepos,…

Eutropius

(731 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Author of a Lat. historical work Author of a Latin historical work, which according to its dedication was written at the instruction of Emperor Valens. The text indicates that the author had taken part in Julian's Persian campaign (10,16,1). In the intitulatio of a MS, he is referred to as a magister memoriae. It is still questionable whether he is identical with another Eutropius of the 2nd half of the 4th cent., whose name appears in other sources: possibly he was proconsul Asiae in 371/2, praef. praet. Illyrici in 380-1, and consul posterior in 387. The historical …

Arcadius

(544 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor (383-408 AD) Roman emperor (AD 383-1/05/408), born in 377 in Spain, son of Theodosius I. Educated by the pagan  Themistius and the Christian Arsenius; proclaimed Augustus on 19/01/383, since 394 (departure of Theodosius I into war against Eugenius) ruler of the East, in 395 together with Honorius successor of Theodosius I. A. is considered to have been subject to influence: in the beginning the praefectus praetorio  Rufinus who was murdered in 395, conducted his affairs, later the praepositus sacri cubiculi  Eutropius, who…

Aurelianus

(953 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Aurelius A. Cos. suff. 180/182 AD Praetorian legate of Arabia under two Augusti (AE 1965, 23); cos. suff. between AD 180 and 182 (CIL VIII 10570=ILS 6870). PIR2 A 1424. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consular senator, executed around 217/18 AD Consular senator. His execution, demanded by the soldiers, was at first refused by Emperor  Macrinus (217-18) (Cass. Dio 78,12,4), but was probably carried out soon thereafter (Cass. Dio 78,19,1). PIR2 A 1425. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Imperator Caes. L. Domitius A. Augustus Born…

Eutychianus

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Rom. officer from Cappadocia, eyewitness of the Persian campaign of AD 363 According to Malalas (p. 332,9ff.) a Roman officer from Cappadocia, who recorded his eyewitness account of Julian's Persian campaign of AD 363 in an annalistic history (FHG 4,6). Both the character and his work may well be fictitious (cf. FGrH II B 226, p. 638f.). PLRE 1, 319 E. (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. AD 396/7 Praef. praet. ( Illyrici?) in AD 396/7.; praef. praet. Orientis between 397 and 399; II in 404/5; cos. in 398. His identification with Typhu…

Dalmatius

(328 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Fl. D. Halbbruder Kaiser Constantinus' I. Sohn des Constantius [1] und der Theodora, Halbbruder Constantins I. Über seine Rolle in der ersten Zeit Constantins ist nichts bekannt, vermutlich ca. 320-324 n.Chr. wurde ihm während der Spannungen mit Licinius Toulouse als Aufenthalt zugewiesen (Auson. Prof. 16,11-12). 333 Consul, wurde er um die gleiche Zeit mit dem archaisierenden Titel eines censor nach Antiocheia geschickt (Athan. c. Ar. 65,1ff.). Dort war er mit Mordanklagen gegen Athanasius befaßt. In Tarsos ließ er Calocaerus durch V…

Bonifatius

(323 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Princeton)
[English version] [1] Verteidigte 413 n. Chr. Marseille gegen Athaulf B. tat sich 413 n.Chr. bei der Verteidigung von Marseille gegen Athaulf (Ataulfus) hervor, seit 416/7 n.Chr. in Africa als Tribun bezeugt, vielleicht praepositus limitis; seit etwa 423 comes Africae. Da er unabhängig agierte, stand er immer wieder im Verdacht, gegenüber Valentinianus III. illoyal zu sein, was 427-429 zu mil. Auseinandersetzungen führte; offenbar 429 vom Kaiser als comes bestätigt. B. wurde dabei nachgesagt, die Vandalen ins Land gerufen zu haben, um seine eigene Position zu s…

Honorius

(675 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[English version] [1] (Groß-)Vater des Kaisers Theodosius I. Bei [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 48,1 als Vater des Kaisers Theodosius I. bezeichnet, dürfte aber sein Großvater gewesen sein. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [2] Älterer Bruder Theodosius' I. Älterer Bruder Theodosius' I., verh. wohl mit Maria, Tochter war Serena; beide wurden in den Haushalt des Kaisers aufgenommen wurden. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [3] Flavius H. Weström. Kaiser 393-423 n. Chr., puer nobilissimus weström. Kaiser 393-423 n.Chr., wurde am 9.9…

Eutychianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Röm. Offizier aus Kappadokien, Augenzeuge des Perserkrieges von 363 n. Chr. Nach Malalas (p. 332,9ff.) röm. Offizier aus Kappadokien, der in einem annalistischen Werk Iulians Perserkrieg von 363 n.Chr. als Augenzeuge beschrieben hat (FHG 4,6). Person und Werk sind evtl. Fiktion (vgl. FGrH II B 226, p. 638f.). PLRE 1, 319 E. (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [English version] [2] Praef. praet. 396/7 n. Chr. Praef. praet. ( Illyrici?) 396/7 n.Chr.; praef. praet. Orientis 397-399; II 404/5; cos. 398. Strittig ist seine Identifizierung mit Typhos aus Synesi…

Aurelianus

(885 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Aurelius A. Consul suff. zw. 180/182 n. Chr. Prätorischer Legat Arabiens unter zwei Augusti (AE 1965, 23); cos. suff. zw. 180/182 n.Chr. (CIL VIII 10570=ILS 6870). PIR2 A 1424. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [English version] [2] Konsularer Senator, Hinrichtung ca. 217/8 n. Chr. Konsularer Senator. Seine von den Soldaten geforderte Hinrichtung wurde von Kaiser Macrinus (217-18) zunächst verweigert (Cass. Dio 78,12,4), aber wohl doch bald darauf vollzogen (Cass. Dio 78,19,1). PIR2 A 1425. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [English version] [3] Imperator Caes. L. Dom…

Marinus

(214 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
[English version] [1] milit. Funktionsträger, 413 n.Chr. Besiegte als comes (Africae?) 413 n.Chr. Heraclianus, exekutierte das Todesurteil gegen ihn und ging gegen dessen Anhänger mit großer Härte vor, u.a. wurde Marcellinus [12] hingerichtet. Wohl noch 413 selbst seines Amtes enthoben. Christ. Seine Identität mit dem in Cod. Theod. 15,11,1 erwähnten Maurianus (PLRE 2, 737) ist fraglich. PLRE 2, 724. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [2] Praefectus praetorio, 512-515/17 und 519 n.Chr. M. aus Apameia (Syrien). Oström. Beamter, Anhänger der monophysitische…

Philometor

(185 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ, wörtlich “der/die die Mutter Liebende”). [English version] [1] Kultbeiname von hell. Herrschern Kultbeiname von hell. Herrschern, zuerst von Ptolemaios VI., der anfangs unter der Regentschaft seiner Mutter stand. Für viele der folgenden Könige (z.B. Ptolemaios VIII., X., XV., Kleopatra [II 12] VII., Antiochos [10] VIII., Demetrios [9] III.) gilt die Feststellung von Gutschmid [1. 112], daß sie anfangs unter der Vormundschaft ihrer Mutter regierten. Es gibt für den Namen auch äg. Konnotationen ( Kamutef, “der Stier seiner Mutter” [sc. Isis]), die zeigen s…

Eutropius

(645 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Verf. eines lat. Geschichtswerkes, um 370 Verfasser eines lat. Geschichtswerkes, das laut Widmung im Auftrag des Kaisers Valens entstanden ist. Aus dem Text ergibt sich, daß E. Teilnehmer am Perserfeldzug Iulians war (10,16,1). Die intitulatio einer Hs. bezeichnet ihn als magister memoriae. Fraglich ist, ob er mit einem der in anderen Quellen bezeugten Träger dieses Namens aus der 2. H. des 4. Jh. identisch ist: Möglicherweise war er 371/2 proconsul Asiae, 380-1 praef. praet. Illyrici und 387 consul posterior. Das in den Hss. breviarium genannte Geschichtsw…

Praetextatus

(133 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Röm. Cognomen (“in der toga praetexta gekleideter Knabe”). Beiname des L. Papirius [I 23] P. und in der Familie der Sulpicii; in der Kaiserzeit weit verbreitet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] Vettius Agorius P. Praefectus urbi 265-267 n. Chr. etwa 320-384 n. Chr. Nach Quaestur und Praetur war er vor 362 corrector Tusciae et Umbriae, 362/4 als Günstling des Iulianus [11] proconsul Achaiae, 365/7 praefectus urbi in Rom, dann Praetorianerpraefekt von Illyrien, Italien, Africa; 384 zum Consul designiert; mehrfach Gesandter des Senats. Er wa…

Nepotianus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Sohn des Flavius N. (cos. 336 n.Chr.) Sohn der Halbschwester des Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], und des Flavius N. ( cos. 336 n.Chr.). Als Angehöriger der konstantinischen Dyn. erhob er sich in Rom gegen Magnentius. Er besiegte die Armee des von diesem in It. eingesetzten praef. praet. Anicius (oder Anicetus) und behauptete sich für eine kurze Zeit (Juni 350) als Herrscher, bis der magister officiorum des Magnentius, Marcellinus [5], ihn schlug. Gegen die Anhänger des N. verhängte Magnentius ein blutiges Strafgericht. PLRE 1,624, Nr. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Str…

Pulcheria

(326 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[English version] [1] Tochter des Kaisers Theodosius I. und der Flacilla Tochter des Kaisers Theodosius I. und der Flacilla, geb. 377/8, gest. 385/6 n. Chr. Die Grabrede des Gregorios [2] von Nyssa ist erh. (Greg. Nyss. or. 9,1,459-472). PLRE 1, 755. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [2] Augusta 414 Tochter des Kaisers Arcadius und seiner Gattin Eudoxia (Aelia [4]), geb. 399, gest. Juli 453, Enkelin Theodosius' I. Sie erzog nach dem Tod des Vaters (408) ihren 401 geb. Bruder Theodosius II., machte sich im J. 414 zur Augusta (Kaiser…

Didymus

(69 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Sklave des Kaisers Tiberius Sklave von Kaiser Tiberius, der den Germanicussohn Drusus in Haft hielt. PIR2 D 83. Eck, Werner (Köln) [English version] [2] mit Theodosius I. verwandt, 409 n. Chr. getötet Spanier, mit Theodosius I. verwandt. Erhob sich, auf eine Privatarmee gestützt, 408 n.Chr. mit seinem Bruder Verinianus gegen Constantinus [3] III. 409 besiegt, gefangen und getötet. PLRE 2, 358. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Caecilianus

(241 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Bf. von Karthago ab 311/312 C. wurde 311/312 (nach [1] um 309/310) durch Felix von Apthugni zum Bischof von Karthago geweiht. Ein Konzil von 70 Bischöfen unter Führung des numidischen Primas Secundus von Tigisi erklärte die Wahl des C. für ungültig und bezichtigte Felix der “ traditio”. An seiner Stelle wurde zunächst Maiorinus gewählt, dem kurz darauf (313) Donatus folgte. Kaiser Constantin ergriff die Partei des C. (vgl. bes. Constantins Brief bei Eus. HE 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). Der Streit mit Donatus wurde auf den Synoden…

Constantius

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] C. I, Flavius Valerius C., C. Chlorus, Roman Emperor (Augustus) AD 305-306 or M., Caesar (293-305) and Augustus (305-306), in later times nicknamed Chlorus; born c. 250 in what would become Dacia Ripensis. On the staff of the Illyrian soldier emperors, first protector, then tribunus. Under the rule of  Carinus attained equestrian rank as praeses Dalmatiarum (Anon. Vales. 1; SHA Car. 17,6). It seems likely that even before 293 (thus Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,24; Eutr. 9,22,1), and in fact before 289, when he was praefectus praetorio to  Maximianus, he had to divorce h…

Caesarius

(708 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam)
[German version] [1] Official, 4th cent. AD Hailing from Cilicia, C. was educated in Antioch (Lib. Ep. 1399). He was a brother of  Alypius (Jul. Ep. 9-10). In AD 362-363, he was possibly vicarius Asiae (Lib. Ep. 764; 1384). After the death of  Iulianus, he became comes rerum privatarum (Cod. Theod. 10,1,8) and gained great influence at the court of Valens (Lib. Ep. 1449; 1456). As praef. urbis Constantinopolitanae, C. was taken prisoner by the usurper Procopius in 365 (Amm. Marc. 26,7,4; Zos. 4,6,2) and possibly executed (Them. Or.7,92c). He was the recipient of…

Asterius

(429 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀστέριος; Astérios). [German version] [1] Cretan epiclesis of Zeus A Cretan epiclesis of Zeus, attested to only in the Byzantine writers; it arose through euhemeristic interpretation of the myth of Asterion [1]. In contrast to this view, evolutionist interpretations regarded him the origin of that hero. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography H. Schwabl, s.v. Zeus I, RE 10 A, 281. [German version] [2] Sophis from Cappadocia Sophist from Cappadocia, belonged to the circle of students of Lucianus of Antioch (martyr AD 312) from whom came the spokesmen for the …

Africanus

(177 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Originally the epithet of a victor, first assumed by P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Maior) after the victory over Carthage in 201 BC (Liv. 30,45,6), then assumed by his adoptive son P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Minor), cos. 147; later as surname also in other families [1]. In the imperial era surname of the emperors Gordian I and II, Justinian I and Flavius Mauricius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek doctor 2nd or 1st cent. BC Greek doctor of the 2nd or 1st cent. BC, who dedicated a few of his prescriptions to a king Antigonus [1]. Not to be confused with a…

Valens

(948 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Rival emperor to Gallienus, 3rd cent. AD As proconsul of Achaia, V. had himself proclaimed rival emperor to Gallienus in AD 261 in Macedonia. Although he defeated Piso, who was sent there against him (PIR2 C 298), he was soon murdered by his own troops (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,4; Amm. Marc. 21,16,10; SHA Tyr. Trig. 19; 21; SHA Gall. 2,2 f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2 227  PIR V 7  PLRE 1, 929 f. [German version] [2] Flavius Valens Eastern Roman emperor AD 364-378. Born in 321 in Cibalae (Illyria), of lowly origins and without a prof…

Pelagius

(849 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Πελάγιος; Pelágios). [German version] [1] Schoolfellow and friend of Libanius, high-ranking official Fellow student and friend of Libanius, in AD 357; represented his home city Cyrrhus (in Euphratensis) before Constantius [2] II in Italy; in about 382 he was consularis Syriae; he died in 393, a non-Christian (it is to him that Lib. Epist. 1325 and 1334 are addressed). PLRE 1, 686 (P. 1). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Epic poet and historian, 5th cent. Silentiarius ( Silentiarii ), distinguished epic poet and probably also historian…

Aelia

(294 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Second wife of Sulla Second wife of Sulla (Plut. Sull. 6,20). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Galla Wife of one Postumus (Augustan period) Wife of one Postumus = ? C. Propertius Postumus, Prop. 3,12,38; related to members of the senatorial Aelii of the Augustan period [1; 2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Paetina, second wife of  Claudius Ae. Paetina. Probably daughter of Sex. Aelius Catus; second wife of  Claudius, who separated from her (Suet. Claud. 26,2). They had a daughter  Antonia [5].  Narcissus …

Anicius

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Name of a family that came from Praeneste, which is documented there already in the Republican era. An Anician achieved the consulate in 160 BC (see [I 4]), but otherwise the tribe does not distinguish itself again in the Republic. In the imperial era, however, the gens blossomed; from the post-Diocletian era until the 4th cent. AD as an urban Roman family, and then, continued by the members of the female line, emerged as Christian aristocracy of great significance in the 5th cent [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A., C. Senator (middle of the …

Anthemius

(604 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis 405-414 AD Probably sent to Persia as an envoy in AD 383, comes sacrarum larg. (eastern region) in AD 400; magister officiorum (eastern region) at the latest in AD 404, cos. 405; at the latest from AD 406 patricius. A. gained considerable political influence in his role as praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 405-414, initially under Arcadius, later under the underage Theodosius II. He was a Christian, but looked upon pagan culture with an open mind [1. 82 f.]. Through the building of walls, he took…

Anatolius

(262 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio for Illyria, AD 356-360 Lawyer from Berytus. The recipient of many letters from  Libanius. From AD 356/7 until his death (360) he was praefectus praetorio for Illyria. Prior to that he was consularis Syriae (possibly 349), vicarius Asiae (352) and procos. urbis Constantinopolitanae (354). 355 he declined appointment to the position of praefectus urbi Romae (Lib. Ep. 391). He is perhaps identical with the agrarian writer Vindonius Anatolius. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Mag. utriusque mil. praesentalis, after AD 447 AD 433…

Constantinus

(2,742 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] C. I. The Great, Roman Emperor AD 306-337 ‘the Great’, Roman emperor from AD 306-337. Born c. 275 (Euseb. Vita Const. 4,53; Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,16; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,15, differently Euseb. Vita Const. 2,51) at Naïssus (Anon. Vales. 2) the son of Constantius [1] I and of Helena. After his father was made Caesar, Constantine served on the staff of  Diocletian and of  Galerius (Pan. Lat. 7[6] 5,3; Lactant. De mort. pers. 18,10; Anon. Vales. 2). In 305 he left the court of Galerius to jo…

Eucherius

(333 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Uncle of emperor Theodosius I Flavius E. was an uncle of emperor Theodosius I (Them. Or. 16,203d). He is possibly identical with the comes sacrarum largitionum of AD 377-379 (Cod. Theod. 1,32,3; 10,20,9). In 381 he was consul (Them. ibid.). He was still alive in 395 (Zos. 5,2,3). PLRE 1, 288 E. (2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Stilicho, about AD 390 Flavius E., the son of  Stilicho and Serena, born AD 389 in Rome. He first lived in Constantinople, then at the court of  Honorius, where he became tribunus et notarius. In 400 he became engaged wi…

Lucianus

(4,158 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Λουκιανός; Loukianós). [German version] [1] L. of Samosata Greek rhetorical-satirical writer, 2nd cent. AD Important Greek rhetorical-satirical writer of the Roman Imperial period. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Life and career L. was born between AD 115 and 125 [4. 8] in Samosata on the Euphrates, on the eastern edge of Roman Syria. Περὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου ἦτοι Βίος Λουκιανοῦ (‘The Dream, or Lucian's Life’, Somn.) portrays vividly (but not necessarily truthfully) L.'s decision for an education modelled on the example of the great classical authors ( paideía)…

Eudocia

(467 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Εὐδοκία; Eudokía). [German version] [1] Aelia Eudocia. Original name Athenais. Came from a traditional background in Athens (her father was the rhetor Leontius) and had an excellent education. Allegedly at the instigation of  Pulcheria, she married  Theodosius II on 7 June 421; she was baptized for this purpose and given the name Aelia E. She was considered pious and increasingly exerted an influence on her husband, pushing aside Pulcheria. In 422 she gave birth to  Eudoxia [2] and before 431 to Flacc…

Nepos

(785 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen, epithet of Q. Caecilius Metellus N. and his son Roman cognomen (‘grandson’) to distinguish a boy from his father and grandfather of the same name. Epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 28] Metellus N. and his homonymous son [I 29]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 79; 304. [German version] [2] Cornelius N. Biographer and historian, 1st cent. BC ( c. 100-24 BC) represents the dynamic of intellectual culture in Rome during the 1st cent. BC. He hailed from the Transpadana region and was an equestrian. N. …

Constantius

(1,438 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] C.I., Flavius Valerius C., C. Chlorus, Röm. Kaiser (Augustus) (305-306 n. Chr.) oder M., Caesar (293-305) und Augustus (305-306), in später Tradition mit Beinamen Chlorus versehen, * um 250 in der späteren Dacia Ripensis. Im Stab der illyr. Soldatenkaiser zunächst protector, dann tribunus. Während der Herrschaft des Carinus ritterlicher praeses Dalmatiarum (Anon. Vales. 1; SHA Car. 17,6). Vermutlich mußte er nicht erst 293 (so Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,24; Eutr. 9,22,1), sondern schon vor 289 als praef. praet. des Maximianus seine erste Frau Helena verstoße…

Constans

(591 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Roman Emperor (Augustus), 337-350 AD Roman Emperor, born c. 320 AD, the youngest son of Constantine [1] and Fausta, elevated to Caesar on 25 December 333 and at about the same time betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of  Ablabius [1]. From 9 September 337 Augustus. At a meeting of the brothers in Pannonia (Julian Or. 1,19a) C. received Italy, Illyricum and Africa (Zon. 13,5). He refused to acknowledge the guardianship of his eldest brother Constantine [2] II [1]. Constan…

Marinianus

(210 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Jurist, teacher of law in Rome, 4th cent. Jurist from Galatia in Asia Minor, belonging to the group around Symmachus. M was a teacher of law in Rome (Symmachus, Ep. 3,23,2) and in AD 383 vicarius Hispaniae (Cod. Theod. 9,1,14). PLRE I, 559f. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Die Jurisprudenz im spätantiken Italien, 1987, 64, 98. [German version] [2] Flavius Avitus M. Consul in AD 423 Attested in AD 422 as praetorian prefect of Italia, Illyria and Africa, and in 423 as consul, perhaps patricius. Along with his wife he contributed to the renov…

Constantinus

(2,526 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
[English version] [1] C. I. der Große, röm. Kaiser 306-337 “der Große”, 306-337 n.Chr. röm. Kaiser. *ca. 275 (Eus. vita Const. 4,53; Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,16; Aur. Vict. epit. Caes. 41,15, anders Eus. vita Const. 2,51) in Naissus (Anon. Vales. 2) als Sohn des Constantius [1] I. und der Helena. Nach der Erhebung seines Vaters zum Caesar diente C. im Stab des Diocletianus und des Galerius (Paneg. 7[6] 5,3; Lact. mort. pers. 18,10; Anon. Vales. 2). 305 reiste C. vom Hof des Galerius zu seinem zum Augustus des…
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