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Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Hippostratus

(186 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππόστρατος; Hippóstratos). [German version] [1] Seducer of Periboea Son of Amarynceus who seduced  Periboea, daughter of Hipponous (Apollod. 1,74; Hes. fr. 12 M-W). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) [German version] [2] Nephew of Attalus [1] Nephew of  Attalus [1], brother of  Cleopatra, after whose death he was executed by  Alexander [4] the Great (cf. Iust. 11,5,1); not to be identified with other men by the same name. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 390. [German version] [3] H. Soter Indo-Greek king in Gandhara in the 1st cent. BC One of the later I…

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes [2]. However, Z. owes his fame to his criticism of Homerus [1] in his work Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως/ Katà tês Homērou poiḗseōs ('Against Homer's verse'; 9 books; fragments in [2]) which earned him the epithet Ὁμηρομάστιξ ( Homēromástix, 'Scourge of Homer'). Motivated by the Cynic approach, Z. endeav…

Laodice

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη; Laodíkē). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Priamus and Hecuba Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe; her husbands are given as Helicaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), through whom she was spared enslavement after the fall of Troy (Paus. 10,26,3), or Acamas (Parthenius 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Thes. 34,2) or Telephus (Hyg. Fab. 101). According to Apollodorus (Epit. 5,25), after the fall of Troy she was swallowed up by a cleft in the earth (cf. also Lycoph. 316f.; Tryphiodorus 660f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Agamemnon …

Orthura

(82 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ὄρθουρα/ Órthoura). City in the interior of the Soringi in Southern India, residence of King Sornas (Ptol. 7,1,91); probably the Greek form of Uraiyūr, capitol of the Choḷā empire on the Kāveri River, with the port of Chaberis at the mouth of the river. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography K. Karttunen, Early Roman Trade with South India, in: Arctos 29, 1995, 81-91  O. Stein, s.v. Ὄρθουρα, RE 18, 1503-1505.

Cathaei

(108 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Καθαῖοι; Kathaîoi). Indian people in the Punjab either east of the  Hydraotes or between  Hydaspes and  Acesines [2], subjugated by Alexander the Great (Arr. Anab. 5,22; Diod. Sic. 17,91,2; Curt. et al.); perhaps to be identified with Sanskrit Kāthaka (attested as a Vedic school, as also the Kambistholoi and Madyandinoi). Their customs (burning of widows, bride selection, wearing jewellery and high regard for physical beauty) were described by Onesicritus (fr. 34 in Str.) who also reports that there were many metals …

Ganges

(224 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Γάγγης; Gángēs, Sanskrit Gaṅga). The largest river in India, known to the west (Arr. Anab. 5,4,1; 5,6,7; 5,9,4; 5,26,1; Curt. 8,9,5, et passim) since Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map), if not already in Ktesias (in Plin. HN 37,39). Its length was measured in the early Hellenistic period and calculated to be 10,000 stadia (Str. 15,689). According to Str. 15,719 its source lay in the Ēmōdá órē (Himalaya). The G. is mentioned several times by Ptolemy (7,1,29; 30; 42; 51 Nobbe, et passim), its delta described as having five arms (7,1,18), and also the Gangētikós…

Peucelaotis

(176 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Hellenistic states | India, trade with (Πευκελαῶτις/ Peukelaôtis: Arr. Anab. 4,22,7-8,28,6; also Πευκελαῖτις/ Peukelaîtis: Arr. Ind. 1,8; 4,11; Πευκελαῖτις/ Peukelaîtis: Str. 15,1,27; also e.g. Προκλαίς/ Proklaís: Ptol. Geog. 7,1,44; Ποκλαίς/ Poklaís: Peripl. m. Eux. 47f.). City in Gandhāra (in modern Pakistan, west of the Indus; Gandaritis), Old Indian Puṣkalavatī, Middle Indian Pukkhalāvatī, Greek form probably influenced by names with Peuko- ( Peukolaos, Peukésta…

Zamirae

(96 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ζαμῖραι/ Zamîrai, perhaps better Γαμῆραι/ Gamêrai). A tribe, described by Ptol. 7,2,16 as cannibal, in India extra Gangem, beyond the Cirrhadia, roughly in modern Burma ( Argyrâ chṓra, 'silver land' in Ptol. 7,2,17). It is almost impossible to identify the individual peoples and places of southeastern Asia named in Ptol. (attempts in [1] and [2]), because most other sources are from a substantially later period. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliograp…

Kanishka

(77 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Kaniṣka). Most prominent ruler of the Indo-Scythians; exact date controversial, begin of his reign approximately AD 100. His empire stretched from Bactria and Sogdiana to the heartland of India, with Bactra, Surkh Kotal, Taxila and Mathurā as important centres. K. maintained relations with Rome and probably used - apart from Indian and Iranian titles - the Greek title kaísar. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibli…

Ozene

(80 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ὀζήνη/ Ozḗnē). Indian city in the interior of the country east of Barygaza, a former capital city (Peripl. m. Eux. 48); Hellenized form of central Indian Ojjenī (for Old Indian Ujjayinī), the famous metropolis in western India. In Ptol. 7,1,63, O. is the capital city of Tiastanes, identical with the epigraphically attested Kṣatrapa prince Caṣṭana.…

Palimbothra

(199 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Παλίμβοθρα/ Palímbothra, also Παλίβοθρα/ Palíbothra; name derived from an early Middle Indian form of Old Indian Pāṭaliputra [1. 34]). City of the Prasii…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Colchi

(68 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with Trading city on the south-eastern coast of India, situated opposite  Taprobane (Ptol. 7,1,10; 7,1,95: Kolchikòs kólpos). Peripl. m. r. 58f. made reference to the fact that the coast of  Komarei up to and including C. was important for pearl fishing. C. was probably the city today known as Koṟkai. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Indo-Greeks

(114 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] The Greeks of Hellenistic Bactria ( Graeco-Bactria), who conquered southeastern Afghanistan (Paropamisadae and Arachosia) and northwestern India (modern Pakistan) in the 2nd cent. BC. After the first and most important kings ( Demetrius [10] and Menander) the kingdom disintegrated into several parts whose numerous rulers (almost 40) are mostly attested only by coins. The I. held on until the 1st cent. BC or even the 1st cent. AD, when territories were conquered by the  Parthians a…

Euthydemus

(540 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Εὐθύδημος; Euthýdemos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 418/7 BC Athenian strategos of 418/17 BC. He took part in the Sicilian campaign, during which in 414/13 both he and Menander became commanders to serve alongside Nicias. They were defeated before  Demosthenes [1] even arrived. They failed in their attempt to force their departure out of Syracuse's great harbour (Thuc. 7,16,1; 69,4; Diod. Sic. 13,13,2-4; Plut. Nicias 20). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, 1981. [German version] [2] E. I. Greek ki…

Maesolus

(94 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μαισῶλος; Maisôlos). Indian river, has its source in the Orudia mountain range (unclear according to [1]) and flows south to the Gulf of the Ganges (Ptol. 7,1,15; 37). Either modern Godavari or rather Kistna (Krishna) at whose delta the city of Masulipatam still lies today. Dey [2] also equates the name of the river M. with Old Indian Mahāósāla, a place of pilgrimage on the Godavari. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 O. Stein, s.v. Ὀρούδια, RE 18, 1526f. 2 N. L. Dey, The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India, 1927.

Cabura

(62 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Κάβουρα, Ptol. 6,18,5, erroneously there also Károura), also called Ortospana; probably what is now Kabul on the  Cophen (Sanskrit Kubhā). In the Alexander histories, C. is never mentioned; following the  Bematistai however it is cited by Plin. HN 6,61 as Ortospanum. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s.v. Kabura, RE 10, 1452f. O. Stein, s.v. Ortospanum, RE 18, 1507f.

Maesolia

(73 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μαισωλία; Maisōlía, Ptol. 7,1,15; Masalia, Peripl. m.r. 62); the land of the Maesolians (Ptol. 7,1,79; 93) on the east coast of India. For the name and the position see Maesolus. From an unnamed harbour there, the ships departed, according to Ptolemy, for Chryse Chersonesus (Malacca). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 B. Chatterjee, The Point of Departure for Ships Bound for ‘Suvarnabhumi’, in: Journ. of Ancient Indian History 11, 1977-1978, 49-52.

India

(1,809 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] I. Name Old Indian Sindhu as the name for the Indus river, is attested (with Iranian h) as Hindu in the ancient Persian inscriptions; from this came Greek Ἰνδός ( Indōs; with the Ionian loss of h) for the river and then Ἰνδική ( Indikḗ) for the country. The Latin terms are Indus and India. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) [German version] II. Early relationships Whilst relationships between north-western I. and Mesopotamia go back to the 3rd millennium BC, I. became known in Greece only in the late 6th cent. through Scylax (FGrH 709), who visited …
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