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(4,231 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Sarah
, the Islamic Republic of Pākistān or Islām-i D̲j̲umhūriyya-yi Pākistān is bounded by Iran, Afg̲h̲ānistān, the former Soviet Union, China, India and the Arabian Sea. It covers an area of 706,495 km2 and has a population of 114,071,000 (1990 estimate which includes the population of the disputed state of D̲j̲ammū and Kas̲h̲mir as well as Afg̲h̲ān refugees). The country is divided into four distinct physical regions. In the north, sections of the Himalayan and Karakoram ranges reach an average of more than 6,100 m/20,000 ft. an…

Islam: Early Expansion and Women: Iran to South Asia

(3,467 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Sarah
The spread of Islam began in Sasanian Iran in the seventh century, and over several centuries extended eastwards from across the ranges of the Hindu Kush through to the Indian subcontinent. Most of the inhabitants of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and areas of northern India were converted during this period to Sunni Islam, and indeed medieval Iran was also predominantly a Sunni territory, though the Shiʿa tradition took hold there in the long run, with important political and cultural conse…


(4,436 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Sarah
, Islām-i Ḏj̲umhūriyya-yi Pākistān, République islamique du sous-continent indien limitée par l’Iran, l’Afghanistan, l’ex-Union soviétique, la Chine, l’Inde et la mer du ʿUmān, d’une superficie de 706 495 km2 et possédant une population de 114 071 000 habitants (estimation de 1990 comprenant la population de l’État de Ḏj̲ammū et Kas̲h̲mīr, ainsi que les réfugiés afg̲h̲āns). Le pays se divise en quatre régions: au Nord, des sommets des massifs de l’Himalaya et du Karakoroum dépassent une moyenne de 6 100 m et sont parmi les…

Political-Social Movements: Millenarian: South Asia

(2,327 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Sarah
Islam, as a religion of revelation, began as an apocalyptic movement anticipating the Day of Judgment, and retains apocalyptic and millennial elements to this day, especially in Shia theology, but also in many forms of popular religiosity. In particular, the mujaddid tradition, that foresees a “renewer” at every century turn (A.H.), appears to constitute – before the century has turned – a form of apocalyptic messianic expectation in the coming of the hidden Mahdī. South Asian Islam, however, in comparison with other parts of the worl…


(7,158 words)

Author(s): Andrews, P. A. | Ansari, Sarah
(a.), littéralement «celui qui émigré», ¶ a désigné différents groupes au cours de l’histoire de l’Islam. —1. Dans l’Islam primitif. Voir Hid̲j̲ra et Muhād̲j̲irūn. —2. Turquie et territoires ottomans. Le rôle de refuge de l’Islam ( Islām-penāh) joué par l’Anatolie et la Thrace prit de l’importance au fur et à mesure que la puissance ottomane déclinait et que les populations musulmanes des territoires excentriques se trouvaient soumises à des administrations chrétiennes défavorables, notamment à cause de l’expansion russe et des mouvements nationaux dans les Balkans. Le mot muhād̲j…


(6,649 words)

Author(s): Andrews, P.A. | Ansari, Sarah
(a.), literally, “one who migrates”, has been applied to various groups in the course of Islamic history. 1. In earliest Islam. See for this hid̲j̲ra and muhād̲j̲irūn . 2. In Turkey and the Ottoman lands. The function of the Turkish heartlands of Anatolia and Thrace as the refuge of Islam, Islām-penāh , became significant as Ottoman power declined and the Muslim populations of outlying territories became exposed to the imposition of unfavourable Christian administrations, notably through Russian expansion and national movements in the Balkans. The term muhād̲j̲ir / muhacir


(5,998 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ansari, Sarah | Shackle, C. | Crowe, Yolande
, the older Indian Sindhu , the name for the region around the lower course of the Indus river (from which the region takes its name, see mihrān ), i.e. that part of the Indus valley south of approximately lat. 28° 30’ N., and the delta area, now coming within the modern state of Pākistān. There are alluvial soils in the delta and in the lands along the river, liable to inundation when the river ¶ rises in spring from the melting snows of the northern Indian mountains and rendered fertile by a network of irrigation canals and channels for flood control. To the west of …


(6,257 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W. | Bosworth, C. E. | Ansari, Sarah | Shackle, C. | Crowe, Yolande
, anciennement Sindhu, nom donné à la région entourant le cours inférieur du fleuve Indus (qui donna son nom à la région, voir Mihrān), à savoir la partie de la vallée de l’Indus située au Sud du parallèle 28° 30´ N. environ, et la région du delta, toutes deux faisant aujourd’hui partie de l’Etat moderne du Pākistān. On trouve des terres alluviales dans le delta et le long du fleuve: elles sont soumises aux inondations lors de la crue du fleuve au printemps, due à la fonte des neiges des montagnes du Nord de l’Inde. Elles deviennent fertiles grāce à u…