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(2,007 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, a town of Cilicia in southern Anatolia, also called Sīsiyya (as in Yāḳūt,


(2,313 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a Kurdish tribe and of their country in southern Persia during mediaeval Islamic times. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr spells the name S̲h̲awānkāra, whilst Marco Polo rendered it as Soncara. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, the S̲h̲abānkāra country was bounded by Fārs, Kirmān and the Persian Gulf. At present, it falls within the ustān


(640 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), commander. From the older Pahlavi sardār there arose as early as the Sāsānid period the form sālār with the well-known change of rd to l and compensatory lengthening of the a (cf. Grundr. d. Iran. Phil ., i,a 267, 274). The synonymous word in modern Persian sardār is not a survival of the ancient sardār, but is a modern formation; indeed, the elements from which the ancient word was composed still exist in the modern language. The old Armenian took over the Pahlavi sālār in the form sałar ; the form sardār which would give * sardar in Armenian is not found in the latter language. A latter, probably modern Persian loan-word in Armenian is ( spa ) salar with l instead of ł . On this and on other late Armenian forms, cf. Hübschmann, Arm. Gramm ., i, 235, 239. In the first of these two references, the Pahlavi combinations of the word are also given. On the etymology, cf. also Horn, Grundriss der neup . Etymologie , 153; Hübschmann, Persische Studien , 72; Junker,


(1,957 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, the name of a river of Fārs in southern Persia and also of the mediaeval Islamic town of Fārs which was the chef-lieu of the district of S̲h̲āpūr K̲h̲ūra. 1. The river. This is also called the Bis̲h̲āwur (in Thévenot, Suite du Voyage de Levant , Paris 1674, 295: Bouschavir; 296: Boschavir), and river of Tawwad̲j̲. It must be identical with the antique Granis, mentioned by Arrian, Indica , 39; Pliny, Nat . hist., vi, 99. The l…


(1,848 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Doerfer, G.
(t.), Heaven, God. In the eastern Turkish dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atay, tengri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä ) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri ) are worthy of note; the Kazan Tatar dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi , where täri of course means God). The Og̲h̲uz dialects (Ottoman Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen) have a non-palatal vocalisation, as has Yakut ( tañara ) and Chuvas̲h̲ ( tură < tañri̊ ). For the lex…