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(2,007 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, a town of Cilicia in southern Anatolia, also called Sīsiyya (as in Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iii, 297-8), mediaeval Latin Sisia and Sis; in mediaeval French sources the forms Assis and Oussis are also found. In later mediaeval times it became the capital of the Christian kingdom of Cilician Armenia, and subsequently, the Turkish town of Ḳozan, modern Kozan. It lies in lat. 37° 27′ N. and long. 35° 47′ E. at an altitude of 290 m/950 feet against an outlying mountain of the Taurus range, on a river which eventually flows into the D̲j̲ayḥān [ q.v.]/Ceyhan. Before the Middle Ages, nothing is …


(2,576 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Golden, P.B.
, the name of one or more cities in Western Eurasia. The location of this city (or cities) is still unclear. It is unrecorded in the classical Islamic geographies. Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (tr. R. Dankoff and J. Kelly ¶ Cambridge, Mass. 1982-5, i, 330), who finished writing his Dīwān lug̲h̲at al-Turk in ca. 469/1077, notes it as “a city near Bulg̲h̲ār. It is Suwār.” The latter was a tribal name ( Saviri /Σαβίροι of the Latin and Byzantine sources) of one of the constituent elements of the Volga Bulg̲h̲ārs. In this regard, Togan ( Ibn Faḍlān’s Reisebericht , 203-4, cite…


(1,954 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(t.), Heaven; God. In the eastern dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atāi, tängri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri) are worthy of note; the Kasan dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi, where täri of course means God). Ottoman Turkish has a non-palatal vocalisation ( tañri̊) as has Yakutic which has also in addition a trisyllabic form ( tañara). For the lexicographical material cf. Pavet de Cou…


(2,313 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a Kurdish tribe and of their country in southern Persia during mediaeval Islamic times. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr spells the name S̲h̲awānkāra, whilst Marco Polo rendered it as Soncara. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, the S̲h̲abānkāra country was bounded by Fārs, Kirmān and the Persian Gulf. At present, it falls within the ustān or province of Fārs, and there are still two villages, in the s̲h̲ahrastāns of D̲j̲ahrum and Bū S̲h̲ahr respectively, bearing the name S̲h̲abānkāra (Razmārā (ed.), Farhang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn , vii, 139). Mustawfī says that the capital was…

Turbat-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ām

(492 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a place in the north-east of Persia (province of Ḵh̲urāsān), not far from the Afg̲h̲ān frontier; its position is approximately 61° East Long, and 35° N. Lat. It is a stage on the Mas̲h̲had-Herāt road (the distance from Turbat-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ām to Mas̲h̲had is about 96 miles, roughly half the distance between Mas̲h̲had and Herāt) and lies on a tributary of the Harīrūd. In the first half of the xixth century the number of houses was given at about 200 (Conolly, about 1830); towards the end of the century (1894) Yate put the number at about 250. The last named t…


(1,898 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḥasan b. Aḥmad al-ʿUnṣurī of Balk̲h̲, a Persian poet. The year of his birth is unknown and that of his death is variously given, the most probable date being 441 (1049—1050). Very little is known of his life. The matter, mainly anecdotes, recorded by the Persian literary historians is of very little value. According to a very late source, Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān’s Mad̲j̲maʿ al-Fuṣaḥāʾ (Ṭeherān 1295, i. 355), he was captured by robbers while on a trading journey in his youth and deprived of all his goods. He was later brought by Amīr Naṣr, brother of Maḥ…


(4,160 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(a.), the Zoroastrians. The Greek word μάγοΣ (which itself renders an Īrānian word, cf. old-Persian magus̲h̲, new-Persian mug̲h̲) passed into Arabic through an Aramaic medium. According to the Arabic lexicographers, Mad̲j̲ūs is a collective like Yāhūd; in the singular Mad̲j̲ūsī is to be used; the religion of the Mad̲j̲ūs is called al-Mad̲j̲ūsīya. The lexicographers cite from the root a iind form ( mad̲j̲d̲j̲asa) and a vth ( tamad̲j̲d̲j̲asa). In a poem, cited in the Lisān and the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs the phrase nār mad̲j̲ūsa is found; if we only could be sure, that this poem is rea…


(612 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), God. This word comes from the sphere of Zoroastrian ideas (cf. Avestan yazata, Sanskrit yajata = “worthy of reverence”, a Vedic epithet of gods, e. g. Agni, Indra, Savitar, and also of objects). Old Persian used for “god” the word baga (cf. Avestan bag̲h̲a, Sanskrit bhaga, Pahlavl bag̲h̲). The Avestan yazata as an adjective means “worthy of reverence” and as a substantive “god”; it is used of Ahuramazda himself (he is called the “Greatest of the yazatas”) as well as of the divine beings subordinate to him, like Mit̲h̲ra, Sraos̲h̲a etc. (cf. Bartholomae, Altiran. Wörterbuch, col. 1279 s…

Ḳaṭrān B. Manṣūr

(980 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a Persian poet. ʿAwfī calls him Ḳaṭrān al-ʿAḍudī al-Tabrīzī; according to Dawlats̲h̲āh, he was born in Tirmid̲h̲. Others say he was born in Ḏj̲abal-i Dailam; Ḏj̲abalī is also found as his nisba. Dawlats̲h̲āh says that he spent some time in Balk̲h̲ and later lived in the ʿIrāḳ. The period of his literary activity lies about the middle of the eleventh century a. d. Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw mentions in the Safarnāma that he met Ḳaṭrān in Tabrīz in 438 (1046); a wellknown poem by Ḳaṭrān commemorates the earthquake in Tabrīz in 434 (1042/43). According to a tad̲h̲kira quoted in Rieu, Supplement, p. 140,…


(1,104 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, name of a place, situated 2 marḥala (xo farsak̲h̲) to the East of Balk̲h̲, on the road to the frontier of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān. Ibn Ḵh̲urdādbih calls the station halfway between Balk̲h̲ and Ḵh̲ulm Walārī. A. Burnes reckons a distance of 40 miles from Ḵh̲ulm to the ancient city of Balk̲h̲; the mediaeval geographers give the following distances from Ḵh̲ulm to Simind̲j̲ān, Waralīz (or Warwālīz) and Bahār respectively: 2 days (Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and Muḳaddasī; ace. to Yāḳūt: 5 days); 2 days; 6 farsak̲h̲ (Ibn Ḵh̲urdādbih; the extract from Ibn Ḏj̲aʿfar’s Kitāb al-Ḵh̲arād̲j̲ gives 7 farsak̲h̲, and notes …


(558 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Muḥammad S̲h̲arīf b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Kās̲h̲if-i Kumait, a Persian man of letters of the xith (xviith) century. What is known of his life comes mainly from the Ḵh̲ātima of his Ḵh̲azān u Bahār. The author’s father, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad, also known as S̲h̲amsā-i S̲h̲īrāzī, was living at Karbalā when his son Muḥammad was born and left it for Iṣfahān in 1006 (1597/98) to escape persecution from the Sunnīs. Muḥammad, the son, was then three years old so that he was born in 1003 (1594/95). In 1008 (1599—1600) S̲…


(1,932 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, district ( Ḳaḍā) and town in Armenia, to the North of the lake of Wan. Of the name, there occur, in old-Armenian, the forms Manavazakert, Manavazkert and Manazkert. The middle-Armenian and Byzantine forms, Mandzgerd and Μαντζικίερτ resp. as well as the Arabian form Manāzd̲j̲ird, point to old-Armenian Manazkert being the original form, Manavaz(a)kert representing a popular etymological formation, from the name of the noble family of the Manavazean’s, which, in olden times, resided in the district.…


(2,514 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a town in Asia Minor, also called Sīsiya, (middle-) Latin Sisia and Sīs; in French sources of the Middle Ages, besides.the usual forms, also Assis and Oussis are found. The most obvious explanation of these last mentioned forms would be from al (the Arabic article) + Sīs: however, attention must be paid to the fact that in the Arabic sources the name seems to occur more often without the article, than accompanied by it (for another explanation of these forms see Rec. des Hist. des Croisades; Doc. Arm., ii., p. xii.). Sīs is the ancient capital of the Cilician-Armenian kingdom, 65…


(683 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Mullā Ṭug̲h̲rā-i Mas̲h̲hadī, a Persian literary man, was born in Mas̲h̲had (the date is not known) and went to India towards the end of the reign of Ḏj̲ahāngīr. After spending some time in the Deccan, he became muns̲h̲ī to Prince Murād Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ in the reign of S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān. He accompanied the latter on his expedition to Balk̲h̲ The conquest of the latter town and of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān by this prince (1055—1057 = 1645—1647) was celebrated by him in a prose work ( risāla). This risāla called Mirʾāt al-Futūḥ was later imitated by a certain G̲h̲ulām Muḥyī al-Dīn who in 1135 (1722—17…


(622 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusain ʿAtāʾ Ḵh̲ān, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Taḥsīn, also known by the title Muraṣṣaʿ Raḳm; an Indian author, as it seems, from Itāwā, son of Mīr Bāḳir Ḵh̲ān, whose tak̲h̲alluṣ was S̲h̲awk. The son of Taḥsīn, named Ḳāsim ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, was not only an author, but also a musician. The exact dates of Taḥsīn’s birth and death cannot be fixed; the date of the completion of his most important work, the Nawṭarz-i muraṣṣaʿ, is ± 1195 (1780). The author was in the service of General Smith, whom he accompanied from Lakhnaw to Calcutta. Later on, Taḥsīn lived at Patna, …


(381 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
or S̲h̲ahristān (p.), a derivation from s̲h̲ahr with the suffix — stān. Collateral forms are s̲h̲ahrastāna, s̲h̲āristān (and, metri causa, s̲h̲ārisān). In Pahlawī the word also occurs, written ideographically ; the meaning is, both in Pahlawī and in modern Persian: a town, especially a fortified one, or a capital (cf. Vullers, s. v. s̲h̲āristān and s̲h̲ahristān; Le Strange: The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 203, note 1). The principal part of several Persian towns is therefore named by this term, as was the case with that quarter of Barwān (according t…

Ḳāsim-i Anwār

(927 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Muʿīn al-Dīn ʿAlī, called ḳāsim-i anwār, a Persian mystic and man of letters, born in 757 (1356) in Sarāb near Tabrīz. For Sarāb (in Yāḳūt Sarāw) Dawlats̲h̲āh, Tad̲h̲kira, p. 346, gives Surk̲h̲āb; this name is not found in Yāḳūt, but Dawlats̲h̲āh has three times the phrase Surk̲h̲āb-i Tabrīz; the name is once found in a play on words (in a rubāʿī of Kamāl-i Ḵh̲ud̲j̲andī in Dawlats̲h̲āh, op. cit., p. 326). According to the Persian lexicographers, Surk̲h̲āb is a hill near Tabrīz (Vullers, Lexicon Pers.- Lat., s. v., N°. 7). Ḳāsim’s family came from Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān. His religiou…


(278 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain al-Wāʿihẓ al-Kās̲h̲ifī, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Ṣafī, son of the preacher and man of letters al-Ḥusain al-Wāʿiẓ al-Kās̲h̲ifī (d. 910 = 1504/5), a Persian author. From the preface to his work Laṭāʾif al-Ṭawāʾif it appears that he was a prisoner in Herāt for a year and in 939 (1532/3) entered the service of S̲h̲āh Muḥammad, prince of G̲h̲ard̲j̲istān where he composed the Laṭāʾif. He must therefore have died after 1533; the exact date is not known any more than that of his birth. Works: 1) a romantic poem, Maḥmūd u Āyāz, as far as is known the oldest poetic ve…


(1,033 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Kamāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Aṭâʾ Maḥmūd b. ʿAlī of Kirmān, known as Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ū Kirmānī [the name Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ū is a diminutive form from Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a: cf. Grundriss der Iran. Phil., 1/ii. 185; another instance of this formation, not noticed there, is pīrū from pīr, Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī, Mat̲h̲nawī(ed. Nicholson) i. line 2169], a Persian poet, born, as stated in the epilogue of his Gul u-Nawrūz, S̲h̲awwāl 5, 679 (Jan. 28,1281) at Kirmān. He died at S̲h̲īrāz, probably in 753/1352; the date 742, given by Dawlats̲h̲āh, is erroneous. Men of letters gave him the surname of Nak̲h̲band-i S̲h̲uʿarāʾ (or N.ī ma…


(5,293 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, or Sid̲j̲istān (from Sakastāna, land of the Sakae, cf. its classical name Sakastāne), also called Nīmrūz [“midday” = southland, scil. south of Ḵh̲urāsān; this name occurs often in the S̲h̲āhnāma, and also on the coins of the Kayānī chiefs ( malik) of Sīstān, cf. J.R.A.S., 1904, p. 669], border district between Persia and Afg̲h̲ānistān. Its area covers ± 7,006 square miles, 2,847 of them being Persian, and 4,159 Afg̲h̲ān territory; its population being about 205,000 persons (for 1906, cf. MacMahon in Geogr. Journal, xxviii. 213). The land is divided between the two countries by …
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