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S̲h̲āhrūd

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, I. Nameoftworivers belonging to the system of the Ḳizil Ūzen (Safīdrūd: this other name, however, which in the Middle-Ages designed the whole Ḳizil Ūzen, at present belongs to its lower course, from Mand̲j̲īl to the Caspian, cf. Andreas in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenz.2, i., col. 1736; Monteith, p. 16). The most important of the two S̲h̲āhrūds is that, which at Mand̲j̲īl (± 36° lat., 49° long.) joins the main river. This S̲h̲āhrūd takes its rise in the mountain-system of the Alburz, and its direction is from the South-East to the North-Wes…

Sāmānids

(2,624 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a Persian dynasty, descended from a certain Sāmānk̲h̲udāt. The genealogy down to Ismāʿīl, the first really independent prince, is as follows: Sāmānk̲h̲udāt, who traced his family back to the celebrated Bahrām Čubīn, that is to a noble ¶ family of Ray (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ed. Tornberg, vii. 192), was, as his name shows, lord of the village of Sāmān (in the district of Balk̲h̲; cf. Ḥamza Iṣfahānī, ed. Gottwaldt, p. 237; Barbier de Meynard, Dict. géog…..de la Perse, p. 297). When Sāmfink̲h̲udāt had to flee from Balk̲h̲, he sought refuge with Asad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī, gover…

Sāsānians

(3,339 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a Persian dynasty. The names of the kings in modern Persian forms are as follows: The dates are not absolutely certain; this is especially true of the reigns between Hurmizd I and S̲h̲āpūr II (see Nöldeke, Gesch. d. Perser und Araber, p. 400 sqq.). The dynasty is said to be descended from a certain Sāsān, of whom little that is really historical is known; the genealogy is then traced farther back through Dārā to the mythical royal family of Īrān. In the beginning of the third century a. d., several petty kings were reigning in Persis under the suzerainty of the Arsakids. The epoch…

al-Ḳazwīnī

(1,513 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Ḥamd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. Aḥmad b. Naṣr al-Mustawfī al-Ḳazwīnī, a Persian geographer and historian. He belonged to au old family of Ḳazwīn of which he himself ( Tārīk̲h̲-i Guzīda, ed. Browne, p. 839—842, 848) gives a full account. It was a S̲h̲īʿī family, which traced its descent from Ḥurr b. Yazīd al-Riyāḥī who fought at Karbalāʾ and had held the governorship of Ḳazwīn since the time of the Caliph al-Muʿtaṣim with only a brief interruption under the Sāmānids. In the time of Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna this office was taken from them. Ḥamd Allāh’s great-grandfather was accountant ( mustawfī) of the ʿ…

Sīmurg̲h̲

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), a mythical bird. The word is a composition of murg̲h̲ (bird) with (the modern-Persian equivalent of) Pahlawī sēn (Avestan saēna, the name of a great bird of prey, probably the eagle). Cognate with the Īrānian word is Skrt. çyena (a falcon); whether Armenian çin (a kite) and Greek ἰκτῖνοΣ may be compared, is doubtful. The Awestan word occurs once in company of the word mĕrĕg̲h̲a (bird), and once without it (cf. Bartholomae, Air. Wb., col. 1548); in Pahlawī sēn as well as sēnmurg̲h̲ are found. The Avestan information about saēna is scanty: once, the Īzed Wĕrĕt̲h̲rag̲h̲na is compa…

S̲h̲āpūr

(4,132 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), Arabie Sābūr (the form S̲h̲āhafūr in a verse of Aʿs̲h̲a quoted in T̲h̲aʿālibī, Hist. des rois des Perses, ed. Zotenberg, p. 493 is nearer the Pahlavi S̲h̲āhpuhrē), the name of several members of the Sāsānid dynasty. The three Persian kings of this name have associations with Muslim tradition. S̲h̲āpūr I b. Ardas̲h̲īr called Sābūr al-Ḏj̲unūd by the Arabs, the Sapor I of the classical histo rians (241—272 a.d.) who waged war with the Romans for the greater part of his reign, for he continued the offensive which had been begun by his father Artaxerxes. He suc…

S̲h̲abānkāra

(2,290 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, name of a Kurdish tribe and their country. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr has S̲h̲awānkāra; Marco Polo: Soncara. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, the realm of S̲h̲abānkāra is bounded by Fārs, Kirmān and the Persian Gulf. Nowadays it forms part of Fārsistān; modern maps show a village of the name of S̲h̲abānkāra on 30° N. Lat. and 51° E. Long. Mustawfī says that the capital was the stronghold of Īg; other, localities of the province, which was divided into six districts, were: Zarkān (near Īg), Iṣṭabānān (or …

Sakṣīn

(944 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a place on the Dnieper (according to Ibn Saʿīd, quoted in Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, Taḳwīm al-Buldān, ed. Reinaud and de Slane, p. 205), also located on other rivers e. g. on the Jaik (cf. Dorn, Caspia, p. 116) and on the Volga (according to Westberg; cf. Marquart, Osttürkische Dialektstudien, p. 56). It is situated in 67° E. Long, and 53° N. Lat.; a town , without yāʾ, is said to exist in 162° 30′ E. Long. and 40° 50′ N. Lat., but this must be another place. East of Saḳsīn lies the town of (v. l. ) which belongs to the territory of Saḳsīn (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, op. cit., p. 202). According to Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 670, the…

S̲h̲āh

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), “King”, a. Etymological. The old Persian Ḵh̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya is probably formed with a suffix from an unquotable substantive from the Old Iran, verbal root k̲h̲s̲h̲ay (meaning to “rule” etc.); cf. Sanskr. kṣayati = “he rules”, kṣayadvīra = “ruler of men (or heroes)”, an epithet of the gods in the Ṛgveda. From the same root comes Old Persian Ḵh̲s̲h̲at̲h̲(r)a (“kingdom”) = M. P. S̲h̲ahr; cf. s̲h̲ahryār (“king, ruler”) from an unquotable root k̲h̲s̲h̲āt̲h̲(r)aaāra. The word k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya is therefore originally an adjective: it is found as such once in the Bīsut…

Tañri̊

(1,954 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(t.), Heaven; God. In the eastern dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atāi, tängri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri) are worthy of note; the Kasan dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi, where täri of course means God). Ottoman Turkish has a non-palatal vocalisation ( tañri̊) as has Yakutic which has also in addition a trisyllabic form ( tañara). For the lexicographical material cf. Pavet de Cou…

Sālār

(640 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), commander. From the older Pahlavi sardār there arose as early as the Sāsānid period the form sālār with the well-known change of rd to l and compensatory lengthening of the a (cf. Grundr. d. Iran. Phil ., i,a 267, 274). The synonymous word in modern Persian sardār is not a survival of the ancient sardār, but is a modern formation; indeed, the elements from which the ancient word was composed still exist in the modern language. The old Armenian took over the Pahlavi sālār in the form sałar ; the form sardār which would give * sardar in Armenian is not found in the…

S̲h̲āpūr

(1,957 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, the name of a river of Fārs in southern Persia and also of the mediaeval Islamic town of Fārs which was the chef-lieu of the district of S̲h̲āpūr K̲h̲ūra. 1. The river. This is also called the Bis̲h̲āwur (in Thévenot, Suite du Voyage de Levant , Paris 1674, 295: Bouschavir; 296: Boschavir), and river of Tawwad̲j̲. It must be identical with the antique Granis, mentioned by Arrian, Indica , 39; Pliny, Nat . hist., vi, 99. The lower course, the proper river of Tawwad̲j̲, is formed by the junction of two streams, the S̲h̲āpūr and the Dalakī Rūd, rising both in the southwestern border mountains of the ¶ …

Tañri̊

(1,848 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Doerfer, G.
(t.), Heaven, God. In the eastern Turkish dialects the vocalisation is usually palatal: Čag̲h̲atay, tengri (written ) and similar forms in the other dialects. The trisyllabic forms in Teleut ( täñärä ) and in the Altai dialect ( täñäri ) are worthy of note; the Kazan Tatar dialect has alongside of tängri (god) a word täri = image of a saint, ikon (we may here mention the proper name Täri-birdi , where täri of course means God). The Og̲h̲uz dialects (Ottoman Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen) have a non-palatal vocalisation, as has Yakut ( tañara ) and Chuvas̲h̲ ( tură < tañri̊ ). For the lexicogr…

S̲h̲āpūr

(1,979 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(l) Name of the river of the district of S̲h̲āpūr Ḵh̲ūra in Fārs; also called Bis̲h̲āwur (in Thevenot: Suite du Voyage de Levant, Paris 1674, p. 295: Bouschavir; p. 296: Boschavir), and river of Tawwad̲j̲. It must be identical with the antique Granis, mentioned by Arrian, Indica, 39; Pliny: Nat. Hist., vi.. 99. The lower course, the proper river of Tawwad̲j̲, is formed by the junction of two streams, the S̲h̲āpūr and the Dalakī-Rūd, rising both on the S. W. border-mountains of the Īrān-plateau, which extend along the Persian Gulf. The upper cou…

S̲h̲aman

(953 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), an idolater. The word belongs to the poetical language, and is at present obsolete. In Asadī’s Lug̲h̲at al-Furs (ed. Horn, p. 104), it is explained: „butparast”, while quoting the following verse of Rudakī: „ butparastī girifta īm hama, īn d̲j̲ahān čun but ast u mā s̲h̲aman īm” [„We have all adopted idolatry; this world is like the idol, and we are idolater(s)”, or: „because this world is the idol, etc.”]. The same explanation is given in the Farhang-i S̲h̲uʿūrī (ii., fol. 132 verso) where besides the verse just mentioned (here reproduced in a somewhat altered, seemi…

Turbat-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ām

(492 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a place in the north-east of Persia (province of Ḵh̲urāsān), not far from the Afg̲h̲ān frontier; its position is approximately 61° East Long, and 35° N. Lat. It is a stage on the Mas̲h̲had-Herāt road (the distance from Turbat-i S̲h̲aik̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ām to Mas̲h̲had is about 96 miles, roughly half the distance between Mas̲h̲had and Herāt) and lies on a tributary of the Harīrūd. In the first half of the xixth century the number of houses was given at about 200 (Conolly, about 1830); towards the end of the century (1894) Yate put the number at about 250. The last named t…

ʿUnṣurī

(1,898 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḥasan b. Aḥmad al-ʿUnṣurī of Balk̲h̲, a Persian poet. The year of his birth is unknown and that of his death is variously given, the most probable date being 441 (1049—1050). Very little is known of his life. The matter, mainly anecdotes, recorded by the Persian literary historians is of very little value. According to a very late source, Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān’s Mad̲j̲maʿ al-Fuṣaḥāʾ (Ṭeherān 1295, i. 355), he was captured by robbers while on a trading journey in his youth and deprived of all his goods. He was later brought by Amīr Naṣr, brother of Maḥ…

Mad̲j̲ūs

(4,160 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(a.), the Zoroastrians. The Greek word μάγοΣ (which itself renders an Īrānian word, cf. old-Persian magus̲h̲, new-Persian mug̲h̲) passed into Arabic through an Aramaic medium. According to the Arabic lexicographers, Mad̲j̲ūs is a collective like Yāhūd; in the singular Mad̲j̲ūsī is to be used; the religion of the Mad̲j̲ūs is called al-Mad̲j̲ūsīya. The lexicographers cite from the root a iind form ( mad̲j̲d̲j̲asa) and a vth ( tamad̲j̲d̲j̲asa). In a poem, cited in the Lisān and the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs the phrase nār mad̲j̲ūsa is found; if we only could be sure, that this poem is rea…
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