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S̲h̲abānkāra

(2,277 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, nom d’une tribu kurde et de la région de Perse méridionale qu’elle a occupée au moyen âge islamique. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr l’appelle S̲h̲awānkāra, ¶ et Marco Polo Soncara. Selon Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, la contrée des s̲h̲abānkāra était limitée par le Fārs, le Kirmān et le Golfe Persique. Actuellement, elle se trouve dans l’ ustān ou province du Fars, et il reste deux villages respectivement dans les s̲h̲ahrastāns de Ḏj̲ahrum et de Bū S̲h̲āhr qui portent le nom de S̲h̲abānkāra (Razmārā, éd., Fahrang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn, VII, 139). Mustawfī dit que la capitale était la forteress…

Sīs

(1,930 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, ville de Cilicie, en Anatolie méridionale, appelée aussi Sīsiyya (comme dans Yāḳūt, Buldān, éd. Beyrouth, III, 297-8); en latin médiéval Sisia et Sis; dans les sources françaises médiévales, on trouve aussi Assis et Oussis. Elle devint plus tard la capitale du royaume chrétien d’Arménie cilicienne, puis la ville turque de Ḳōzān, actuellement Kozan. Elle se situe à 37° 27′ de lat. N., à 35° 47′ de long. E. et à 290 m d’altitude, adossée à un mont détaché de la chaīne du Taurus, sur une rivière qui se jette dans le Ḏj̲ayḥān [ q.v.] /Ceyhan. On ne connaīt rien sur cette ville avant le Moyen…

S̲h̲āpūr

(1,966 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, nom d’un fleuve du Fārs, en Perse méridionale, ainsi que de la ville islamique médiévale de Fārs, qui était le chef-lieu de district du S̲h̲āpūr Ḵh̲ūra. 1. Le fleuve. Il est appelé également le Bis̲h̲āwur (dans Thévenot), Suite du Voyage de Levant, Paris 1674, 295: Bouschavir; 296: Boschavir), et fleuve de Tawwad̲j̲. Il faut l’identifier à l’antique Granis, mentionné par Arien, Indica, 39 et Pline, Hist. Nat., VI, 99. Le cours inférieur, c’est-à-dire le fleuve de Tawwad̲j̲ proprement dit, est formé par la jonction de deux cours d’eau, le S̲h̲āpūr et le Dalakī…

Sālār

(629 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), chef militaire. A partir du pahlavī ancien sardār, il apparut dès l’époque sāsānide la forme sālār, avec le passage bien connu de rd à 1, et l’allongement compensatoire du ā(cf. Grundr. d. Iran. Phil., I, a, 267, 274). Le synonyme en persan moderne sardār n’est pas hérité de l’ancien sardār, mais est une formation moderne; les éléments composant l’ancien mot existent encore dans la forme moderne. L’arménien ancien a repris le pahlavī sālār sous la forme salar; la forme sardār, qui donnerait ‘sardār en arménien n’existe pas dans la langue moderne. Un mot d’emprunt récent …

Saḳsīn

(2,561 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Golden, P.B.
, nom d’une ou plusieurs villes d’Eurasie occidentale. La localisation de cette ville (ou ces villes) n’est toujour pas évidente. Aucune indication à ce sujet n’a été enregistrée dans les ouvrages classiques des géographes musulmans. Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (trad. R. Dankoff, éd. J. Kelly, Cambridge, Mass. 1982-5, I, 330), qui venait de terminer la rédaction de son Dīwān lug̲h̲at al-Turk, vers 469/1077, mentionne cette ville comme «une cité près de Bulg̲h̲ār. C’est Suwār.» Cette dernière était un nom de tribu (Saviri/Σαβίροι des sources latines et byza…

Sīs

(2,007 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F.
, a town of Cilicia in southern Anatolia, also called Sīsiyya (as in Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iii, 297-8), mediaeval Latin Sisia and Sis; in mediaeval French sources the forms Assis and Oussis are also found. In later mediaeval times it became the capital of the Christian kingdom of Cilician Armenia, and subsequently, the Turkish town of Ḳozan, modern Kozan. It lies in lat. 37° 27′ N. and long. 35° 47′ E. at an altitude of 290 m/950 feet against an outlying mountain of the Taurus range, on a river which eventually flows into the D̲j̲ayḥān [ q.v.]/Ceyhan. Before the Middle Ages, nothing is …

Saḳsīn

(2,576 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Golden, P.B.
, the name of one or more cities in Western Eurasia. The location of this city (or cities) is still unclear. It is unrecorded in the classical Islamic geographies. Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (tr. R. Dankoff and J. Kelly ¶ Cambridge, Mass. 1982-5, i, 330), who finished writing his Dīwān lug̲h̲at al-Turk in ca. 469/1077, notes it as “a city near Bulg̲h̲ār. It is Suwār.” The latter was a tribal name ( Saviri /Σαβίροι of the Latin and Byzantine sources) of one of the constituent elements of the Volga Bulg̲h̲ārs. In this regard, Togan ( Ibn Faḍlān’s Reisebericht , 203-4, cite…

S̲h̲abānkāra

(2,313 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V.F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a Kurdish tribe and of their country in southern Persia during mediaeval Islamic times. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr spells the name S̲h̲awānkāra, whilst Marco Polo rendered it as Soncara. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, the S̲h̲abānkāra country was bounded by Fārs, Kirmān and the Persian Gulf. At present, it falls within the ustān or province of Fārs, and there are still two villages, in the s̲h̲ahrastāns of D̲j̲ahrum and Bū S̲h̲ahr respectively, bearing the name S̲h̲abānkāra (Razmārā (ed.), Farhang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn , vii, 139). Mustawfī says that the capital was…

Yazdān

(612 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
(p.), God. This word comes from the sphere of Zoroastrian ideas (cf. Avestan yazata, Sanskrit yajata = “worthy of reverence”, a Vedic epithet of gods, e. g. Agni, Indra, Savitar, and also of objects). Old Persian used for “god” the word baga (cf. Avestan bag̲h̲a, Sanskrit bhaga, Pahlavl bag̲h̲). The Avestan yazata as an adjective means “worthy of reverence” and as a substantive “god”; it is used of Ahuramazda himself (he is called the “Greatest of the yazatas”) as well as of the divine beings subordinate to him, like Mit̲h̲ra, Sraos̲h̲a etc. (cf. Bartholomae, Altiran. Wörterbuch, col. 1279 s…

Ḳaṭrān B. Manṣūr

(980 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a Persian poet. ʿAwfī calls him Ḳaṭrān al-ʿAḍudī al-Tabrīzī; according to Dawlats̲h̲āh, he was born in Tirmid̲h̲. Others say he was born in Ḏj̲abal-i Dailam; Ḏj̲abalī is also found as his nisba. Dawlats̲h̲āh says that he spent some time in Balk̲h̲ and later lived in the ʿIrāḳ. The period of his literary activity lies about the middle of the eleventh century a. d. Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw mentions in the Safarnāma that he met Ḳaṭrān in Tabrīz in 438 (1046); a wellknown poem by Ḳaṭrān commemorates the earthquake in Tabrīz in 434 (1042/43). According to a tad̲h̲kira quoted in Rieu, Supplement, p. 140,…

K̲h̲ulm

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, name of a place, situated 2 marḥala (xo farsak̲h̲) to the East of Balk̲h̲, on the road to the frontier of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān. Ibn Ḵh̲urdādbih calls the station halfway between Balk̲h̲ and Ḵh̲ulm Walārī. A. Burnes reckons a distance of 40 miles from Ḵh̲ulm to the ancient city of Balk̲h̲; the mediaeval geographers give the following distances from Ḵh̲ulm to Simind̲j̲ān, Waralīz (or Warwālīz) and Bahār respectively: 2 days (Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and Muḳaddasī; ace. to Yāḳūt: 5 days); 2 days; 6 farsak̲h̲ (Ibn Ḵh̲urdādbih; the extract from Ibn Ḏj̲aʿfar’s Kitāb al-Ḵh̲arād̲j̲ gives 7 farsak̲h̲, and notes …

Kās̲h̲if

(558 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Muḥammad S̲h̲arīf b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Kās̲h̲if-i Kumait, a Persian man of letters of the xith (xviith) century. What is known of his life comes mainly from the Ḵh̲ātima of his Ḵh̲azān u Bahār. The author’s father, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad, also known as S̲h̲amsā-i S̲h̲īrāzī, was living at Karbalā when his son Muḥammad was born and left it for Iṣfahān in 1006 (1597/98) to escape persecution from the Sunnīs. Muḥammad, the son, was then three years old so that he was born in 1003 (1594/95). In 1008 (1599—1600) S̲…

Malāzgerd

(1,932 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, district ( Ḳaḍā) and town in Armenia, to the North of the lake of Wan. Of the name, there occur, in old-Armenian, the forms Manavazakert, Manavazkert and Manazkert. The middle-Armenian and Byzantine forms, Mandzgerd and Μαντζικίερτ resp. as well as the Arabian form Manāzd̲j̲ird, point to old-Armenian Manazkert being the original form, Manavaz(a)kert representing a popular etymological formation, from the name of the noble family of the Manavazean’s, which, in olden times, resided in the district.…

Sīs

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, a town in Asia Minor, also called Sīsiya, (middle-) Latin Sisia and Sīs; in French sources of the Middle Ages, besides.the usual forms, also Assis and Oussis are found. The most obvious explanation of these last mentioned forms would be from al (the Arabic article) + Sīs: however, attention must be paid to the fact that in the Arabic sources the name seems to occur more often without the article, than accompanied by it (for another explanation of these forms see Rec. des Hist. des Croisades; Doc. Arm., ii., p. xii.). Sīs is the ancient capital of the Cilician-Armenian kingdom, 65…

Ṭug̲h̲rā

(683 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Mullā Ṭug̲h̲rā-i Mas̲h̲hadī, a Persian literary man, was born in Mas̲h̲had (the date is not known) and went to India towards the end of the reign of Ḏj̲ahāngīr. After spending some time in the Deccan, he became muns̲h̲ī to Prince Murād Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ in the reign of S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān. He accompanied the latter on his expedition to Balk̲h̲ The conquest of the latter town and of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān by this prince (1055—1057 = 1645—1647) was celebrated by him in a prose work ( risāla). This risāla called Mirʾāt al-Futūḥ was later imitated by a certain G̲h̲ulām Muḥyī al-Dīn who in 1135 (1722—17…

Taḥsīn

(622 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusain ʿAtāʾ Ḵh̲ān, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Taḥsīn, also known by the title Muraṣṣaʿ Raḳm; an Indian author, as it seems, from Itāwā, son of Mīr Bāḳir Ḵh̲ān, whose tak̲h̲alluṣ was S̲h̲awk. The son of Taḥsīn, named Ḳāsim ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, was not only an author, but also a musician. The exact dates of Taḥsīn’s birth and death cannot be fixed; the date of the completion of his most important work, the Nawṭarz-i muraṣṣaʿ, is ± 1195 (1780). The author was in the service of General Smith, whom he accompanied from Lakhnaw to Calcutta. Later on, Taḥsīn lived at Patna, …

S̲h̲ahrastān

(381 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
or S̲h̲ahristān (p.), a derivation from s̲h̲ahr with the suffix — stān. Collateral forms are s̲h̲ahrastāna, s̲h̲āristān (and, metri causa, s̲h̲ārisān). In Pahlawī the word also occurs, written ideographically ; the meaning is, both in Pahlawī and in modern Persian: a town, especially a fortified one, or a capital (cf. Vullers, s. v. s̲h̲āristān and s̲h̲ahristān; Le Strange: The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 203, note 1). The principal part of several Persian towns is therefore named by this term, as was the case with that quarter of Barwān (according t…

Ḳāsim-i Anwār

(927 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Muʿīn al-Dīn ʿAlī, called ḳāsim-i anwār, a Persian mystic and man of letters, born in 757 (1356) in Sarāb near Tabrīz. For Sarāb (in Yāḳūt Sarāw) Dawlats̲h̲āh, Tad̲h̲kira, p. 346, gives Surk̲h̲āb; this name is not found in Yāḳūt, but Dawlats̲h̲āh has three times the phrase Surk̲h̲āb-i Tabrīz; the name is once found in a play on words (in a rubāʿī of Kamāl-i Ḵh̲ud̲j̲andī in Dawlats̲h̲āh, op. cit., p. 326). According to the Persian lexicographers, Surk̲h̲āb is a hill near Tabrīz (Vullers, Lexicon Pers.- Lat., s. v., N°. 7). Ḳāsim’s family came from Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān. His religiou…

Ṣafī

(278 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain al-Wāʿihẓ al-Kās̲h̲ifī, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Ṣafī, son of the preacher and man of letters al-Ḥusain al-Wāʿiẓ al-Kās̲h̲ifī (d. 910 = 1504/5), a Persian author. From the preface to his work Laṭāʾif al-Ṭawāʾif it appears that he was a prisoner in Herāt for a year and in 939 (1532/3) entered the service of S̲h̲āh Muḥammad, prince of G̲h̲ard̲j̲istān where he composed the Laṭāʾif. He must therefore have died after 1533; the exact date is not known any more than that of his birth. Works: 1) a romantic poem, Maḥmūd u Āyāz, as far as is known the oldest poetic ve…

Kirmānī

(1,033 words)

Author(s): Büchner, V. F.
, Kamāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Aṭâʾ Maḥmūd b. ʿAlī of Kirmān, known as Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ū Kirmānī [the name Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ū is a diminutive form from Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a: cf. Grundriss der Iran. Phil., 1/ii. 185; another instance of this formation, not noticed there, is pīrū from pīr, Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī, Mat̲h̲nawī(ed. Nicholson) i. line 2169], a Persian poet, born, as stated in the epilogue of his Gul u-Nawrūz, S̲h̲awwāl 5, 679 (Jan. 28,1281) at Kirmān. He died at S̲h̲īrāz, probably in 753/1352; the date 742, given by Dawlats̲h̲āh, is erroneous. Men of letters gave him the surname of Nak̲h̲band-i S̲h̲uʿarāʾ (or N.ī ma…
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