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Aḥmad b. Sahl

(221 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. hās̲h̲im , of the aristocratic dihḳān family Kāmkāriyān (who had settled near Marw), which boasted of Sāsānian descent, governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. In order to avenge the death of his brother, fallen in a fight between Persians and Arabs (in Marw), he had under ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲ stirred up a rising of the people. He was taken prisoner and brought to Sīstān, whence he escaped by means of an adventurous flight, and after a new attempt at a rising in Marw he fled for refuge to th…

Gardīzī

(328 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd , Persian historian who flourished in the middle of the 5th/11th century. Nothing is known of his life. His nisba shows that he came from Gardīz [ q.v.]; since he says that he received information about Indian festivals from al-Bīrūnī [ q.v.], he may have been his pupil. His work, entitled Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār, was written in the reign of the G̲h̲aznawid Sultan ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd (440/1049-443/1052). It contains a history of the pre-Islamic kings of Persia, of Muḥammad and the Caliphs to the year 423/1032, and a d…

Tirmid̲h̲

(1,924 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town on the north bank of the Oxus river [see āmū daryā ] near the mouth of its tributary, the Surk̲h̲ān river (lat. 37° 15’ N., long. 67° 15’ E.), now the town of Termez in the southernmost part of the Uzbekistan Republic. As Samʿānī, who spent 12 days there, testifies, the name was pronounced Tarmīd̲h̲ in the town itself ( K. al-Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābad, iii, 41) which is confirmed by the Chinese Ta-mi (e.g. Hüan Tsang, tr. St. Julien, Mémoires sur les contrées occidentales, i, 25). Russian officers in 1889 also heard the pronunciation Termiz or Tarmi̊z ( Sbornik materialov po Azii

Altūntās̲h̲

(422 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
al-ḥād̲j̲ib , abū saʿīd (his alleged second name Hārūn which occurs in a single passage of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 294, is probably due to an error of the author or of a copyist), Turkish slave, later general of the G̲h̲aznawid Sebuk Tegīn and his two successors and governor of Ḵh̲wārizm. Already under Sebuk Tegīn he attained the highest rank in the bodyguard, that of a "great ḥād̲j̲ib "; under Maḥmūd he commanded the right wing in the great battle against the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids (22 Rabīʿ II 398/4 Jan. 1008, and in 401/1010-1 he is mentioned as governor of Harāt. After the conquest of k̲h̲wārizm in 408/1…

ʿAbd al-Karīm Bukhārī

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233/1818 a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲oḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī) down to his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222/1807-8 and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246/1830, and wrote his book for t…

Manṣūr b. Nūḥ

(508 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of two amīr s of the Sāmānid dynasty of Tranoxania and K̲h̲urāsān. 1. Manṣūr b. Nūḥ I, Abū Ṣaliḥ, ruler of K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania (350-65/961-76), succeeded his brother ʿAbd al-Malik b. Nūḥ I. Ibn Ḥawḳal is able ¶ to describe the internal conditions of the Sāmānid kingdom under Manṣūr as an eye-witness; cf. especially BGA, ii, 341: fī waḳtinā hād̲h̲ā ; 344 on the character of Manṣūr “the justest king among our contemporaries, in spite of his physical weakness and the slightness of his frame”. On the vizier Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad Balʿamī, see balʿamī , where a…

Ḥaydar Mīrzā

(676 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(his real name was Muḥammad Ḥaydar; as he himself says, he was known as Mīrzā Ḥaydar; Bābur calls him Ḥaydar Mīrzā), a Persian historian, author of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ras̲h̲īdī , born in 905/1499-1500, died in 958/1551 (for his descent see dūg̲h̲lāt ); through his mother he was a grandson of the Čag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān Yūnus and a cousin of Bābur. Most of our knowledge of his life is gleaned from his own work; Bābur (ed. Beveridge, p. 11) devotes a few lines to him; the Indian historians Abu ’l-Faḍl and Firis̲h̲ta give some information about his later years. After the assassination of his father (91…

Bālik

(123 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Turko-Mongol word for “town” = or “castle” (also written bāliḳ and bālig̲h̲ ); appears frequently in compound names of towns, such as Bīs̲h̲bāliḳ (“Five Towns”, at the present day in ruins at Gučen in Chinese Turkestan), Ḵh̲ānbāliḳ (the “Ḵh̲ān’s Town”), Turko-Mongol name for Pekin (also frequently used by European travellers in the middle ages in forms like (Cambalu), Ilibāliḳ (on the River Ili, the modern Iliysk) etc. As the town of Bās̲h̲bāliḳ is mentioned as early as the Ork̲h̲on i…

Abu ’l-K̲h̲ayr

(686 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, ruler of the Özbegs [see …

ʿAbd Allāh b. Iskandar

(830 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a S̲h̲aybānid [ q.v.], the greatest prince of this dynasty, born in 940/1533-4 (the dragon year 1532-3 is given, probably more accurately, as the year of the cycle) at Āfarīnkent in Miyānkāl (an island between the two arms of the Zarafs̲h̲ān). The father (Iskandar Ḵh̲ān), grandfather (Ḏj̲ānī Beg) and great-grandfather (Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Muḥammad, son of Abu ‘l-Ḵh̲ayr [ q.v.]) of this ruler of geni…

Bāysong̲h̲or

(187 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, second son of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of Samarḳand, grandson of Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd [ q.v.], born in the year 882/1477-8, killed on 10 Muḥarram 905/17 Aug. 1493. In the lifetime of his father he was prince of Buk̲h̲ārā; on the death of the latter in Rabīʿ II 900/30 Dec. 1494/27 Jan. 1495, he was summoned to Samarḳand. In 901/1495-6, he was deposed for a brief period by his brother Sulṭān ʿAlī and in 903, towards the end of Rabīʿ I November 1497, finally overthrown by his cousin Bābur. Bāysong̲h̲or then betook himself to…

Alti S̲h̲ahr

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, or alta s̲h̲ahr (the word "six" is always written alta in Chinese Turkistān), "six towns", a name for part of Chinese Turkistān (Sin-kiang) comprising the towns of Kuča, Aḳ Su, Uč Turfān (or Us̲h̲ Turfān), Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, Yārkand and Ḵh̲otan. It appears to have been first used in the 18th century (cf. M. Hartmann, Der Islamische Orient , i, 226, 278). Yangi Ḥiṣār, between Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar and Yārkand, is sometimes added as the sev…

Takas̲h̲

(549 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish pronunciation: Tekes̲h̲) b. īl-Arslān, king of Ḵh̲warizm [q. v.] 567—596 (1172—1200), of the fourth and most glorious dynasty of Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āhs [q. v.], was, before his accession governor of Ḏj̲and on the lower course of the Si̊r-Daryā [q. v.]; he had to fight for his throne with his younger brother Sulṭān S̲h̲āh, and in the struggle at first Takas̲h̲ and then his brother received the support of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itai [q. v.]. When the fight was finally decided in favour of Takas̲h̲, Sulṭān S̲h̲āh succeeded with the help of the Ḳara Ḵh̲itai in establishing him…

Abu’ l-Ḥasan

(297 words)

Author(s): BARTHOLD, W.
(or Abu ’l-Ḥusain) Muḥammed b. Ibrāhīm b. Sīmd̲j̲ūr, hereditary vassal prince of Kūhistān; under three Sāmānide princes: ʿAbd al-Malik I, Manṣūr I and Nūḥ II, he was three times governor of Ḵh̲orāsān in the years 347—349, 35°—371, 376—378 (958— 960, 962—982, 986—989). During his second governorship of 20 years’ duration he practically enjoyed the esteem of an independent prince and obeyed the Sāmānides „only as far as pleased him." On the accession of Nūḥ II (365 = 976) he was overwhelmed with the high…

Īl-K̲h̲āns

(481 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Mongol dynasty in Persia, vii.th-viii.th (xiii.th-xiv.th) century. On the foundation of the kingdom and the meaning of the title of its rulers see the article hūlāgū (ii. 332b sq.); on the later rulers see the articles abāḳā (i. 4), Arg̲h̲ūn (i. 430a), gaik̲h̲ātū (ii. 128), bāidū (i. 591), g̲h̲āzān (ii. 149b sq.) and abū saʿīd (i. 103b sq.). With the death of the latter on Rabīʿ II 736 (Nov. 30 1335), the main branch became extinct in the male line; till 754 = 1353-1354, several princes, mainly from branch lines and even a princess, Sātī-Beg, sister …

K̲h̲wārizm

(4,435 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or Ḵh̲īwa, a country on the lower course of the Amū-Daryā [q. v.]. Being a fertile delta area, Ḵh̲wārizm must from the earliest times have been of importance for the development of civilisation in Central Asia; in spite of the objections made by Nöldeke ( Z. D. M. G., lvi. 434 sq.), J. Marquart’s view ( Ērānšahr, Berlin 1901, p. 155) that “the much contested Airyanemwaed̲j̲ō, the home of the Awestā, is identical with Ḵh̲wārizm”, has much in its favour. According to Herodotos (iii. 117), the valley of the river Akes, which was of international importance, before Persian rule belonged to the Ḵh̲wā…

Balaklava

(622 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Balaclava), Tatar Bāliḳlava, a small seaport town in the southwest of the Crimean peninsula (Government of Taurus), 8 miles from Sebastopol. The town is mentioned as early as Strabo (Chap. 312) under the name of Palakion and is said to have received this name from Palakos, the son of the Scythian prince Skiluros (second or first century B. C.). There are only popular etymologies in explanation of the name at the present day: 1. Turk, baliḳ “fish” + Greek λαβά or λαβή “catching”; 2. Ital. bella chiave “beautiful spring”. The town lies on a bay which is called by Strabo (Ch. 308) …

Ak̲h̲alčik̲h̲

(100 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Russian Ak̲h̲altsik̲h̲, Turkish Ak̲h̲isḳa or Ak̲h̲isk̲h̲a, nowadays the capital of a district of the government of Tiflis, was originally a Georgian fortress (the name means in Georgian “new fortress”). In the year 1045 (1635) it was taken by the Ottomans after a siege of 23 days and is later on mentioned as the chief town of a separate Wilāyet. After having been taken by the Russians in 1828, the fortress had to be yielded to Russia at the peace of Adrianople (1829). About Ak̲h̲alčik̲h̲ under Turkish government comp. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā p. 408 et seq. (W. Barthold)

Ak̲h̲sīkat̲h̲

(157 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
was in the 4th (10th) century the capital of Farg̲h̲āna; under Bābār it was the second of the large towns and was then called Ak̲h̲sī; still in the 11th (17th) century the present capital Namangān is spoken of in the Baḥr al-asrār (Ethé, India Office no. 575, fo. 108b as one of the less important sisters ( tawābiʿ) of Ak̲h̲sī. According to Bābar, Ak̲h̲sīkat̲h̲ was situated on the right bank of tie river Sir, near the place where the Kāsan-Sai joins it. At present there still exist (near the villages Ak̲h̲sī and S̲h̲āhand) the ruins of the old citadel …
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