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Comic Drama

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard | Bartsch, Eva
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Middle Ages to the Present I. Antiquity In the so-called Old Attic Comedy of the 5th century bce, as represented by the 11 extant comedies of Aristophanes (c. 450–385; the comedies produced in Sicily and Megara [so-called Megarian farces] are lost), the role of religion is a twofold one. First, dramas (Drama: I, 2) performed in the context of the festivals dedicated to Dionysus were considered to be spiritual offerings to the god and could therefore only be staged once (until 386 bce). Secondly, religion and cult were recurrent themes of…


(1,701 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard | Bartsch, Eva
[German Version] I. Antiquity 1. The etymology of the word τραγῳδία/ tragōdía indicates the genre’s cultic roots. Contrary to the traditional interpretation (“goat song”), Burkert understands the term to mean a song (ᾠδή/ ōdé; Ode) accompanying the sacrifice of a ram (τράγος/ trágos). Preliterary evidence of the performance of tragedies has been found in conjunction with the introduction of the cultic hymn to Dionysus (dithyramb; Drama: I) by Arion in Corinth (c. 600 bce) and in Sicyon (northern Peloponnese). Herodotus (5.67) speaks of the choruses of tragedies in Si…

Damaskinos, Michael

(163 words)

Author(s): Haustein-Bartsch, Eva
[German Version] (1530/1535, Candia on Crete – 1592/1593, Candia) is considered the most significant Greek icon painter of the second half of the 16th century. His artistic career began in Candia (now Heraklion) around 1555–1560. In 1574, Damaskinos was invited to Venice to create the icons for the new church of the Greek congregation, San Giorgio dei Grec…


(4,394 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard | Bartsch, Eva | Friedrich, Marcus A.
[German Version] I. History of Religion 1. Cultic originsa. a. Theatrical performances are attested long before the institutionalization of the dramatic genres in Athens (536/533: tragedy [I], 486: comic drama [I]): Dorian forerunners of tragedy in Sicyon and Corinth; 6th-century Attic vases testifying to the existence of animal choruses comparable to those of the 5th-century comedies. The roots of theater lie in the sacrificial rites (Sacrifice: II, 2) associated with the cult of Dionysus. The inhibition…