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(1,078 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf | Ritter, Adolf M. | Hage, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Early Church – III. Patriarchate I. Antiquity Modern Antakya, Turkey, was initially founded in 307 bce as Antigoneia on the Orontes (c. 7km upstream). It was refounded on May 22, 300 by Seleucus I. Nicator (Seleucids) on the present site and renamed in honor of his father, Antiochus. It was well situated at a commercial junction of road networks from Asia Minor and the Orient, with a harbor in Seleukeia Piereia located to the southwest 25km downstream. It was the capital of the Seleucid Empire. After Pompey conquered it in 64 bce, it became the capital …


(173 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] now al-Azariya (“Lazarus' place”), lies east of the Mt. of Olives on the road to the Jordan Valley. It was settled in the Bronze and Iron Ages. – Bethany is closely associated with the raising of Lazarus (John 11), the meeting with Mary and Martha (Luke 10:38–42) and the anointing (Matt 26:6–13, etc.). According to …


(6,872 words)

Author(s): Kooij, Gerrit van der | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Lemaire, André | Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] I. Paleography Today – II. Palestine – III. Texts I. Paleography Today Paleography is the study of the development of writing; as an important element in codicology, it examines early forms of writing, particularly those of antiquity and the Middle Ages. The distinction between the use of ink and “epigraphic” writing is irrelevant. Writing is an empirical bridge between archaeology and the historical sciences (History/Concepts of history); it provides two starting points for paleography, one …


(303 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] Town on the eastern edge of the coastal plain, situated northwest of Jerusalem near Latrun. It is here that Judas defeated the Seleucid army under Lysias 166 bce (1 Macc 3:40; 3:55–4:25). Around 221 ce, Emmaus was elevated to the status of city with the new name of Nicopolis and later became an episcopal see and pilgrimage destination. Its distance from Jerusalem, given as 60 stadia (Luke 24:13), has since Origen been tacitly emended to 160 stadia (29 km), which conforms to the actual distance. All Late Antique sources without exception, such as Itinerarium Burdigalense (C…


(535 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] (“House of bread”) is located 10 km south of Jerusalem on the watershed of the Judaean mountains. Bethlehem extends on a spur joined to the east by a fertile plain. The name alludes to agricultural use (agriculture and herding). The derivation of the name Bethlehem from the goddess Laḥamu has been refuted. While it is true that excavations hav…

Devotional Objects

(1,373 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Bloedhorn, Hanswulf | Hartinger, Walter
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Early Church – III. Middle Ages to the Present I. Antiquity Devotional objects can be understood as objects of private piety and religiosity common in all ancient cultures (cf. Epict., Dissertationes II 8.12), where they were in demand, especially in daily life for magical/apotropaic or energetic/sacramental purposes, and were traded commercially (Philostr. Vita ap. 5.20). The term is modern, so there are no ancient equivalents; comparable Greco-Roman terms include, for example εὐλογία/ eulogía (blessing; Lat. benedictio), ϕυλακτήριον/ ph…


(457 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] Memory of the ancient name has been preserved in that of the Jordanian village Mukawer (30 km south of Madaba), in which remains of the Roman/Byzantine period are still found, including those of churches. The fortress Machaerus itself is located on a spur immediately to the west and is protected on both sides by deep valleys. According to Jos. Bell. VII 164–189, John Hyrcanus II built the first stronghold, which was destroyed by Gabinius in 57 bce. It was rebuilt by Herod the Great with an upper and a lower town; according to Pliny the Elder ( Naturalis historia, V 17.72), it …


(183 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] (“House of Fish”), renamed Iulias in 30 ce under Herod Philipp in honor of Livia (Iulia Augusta), lies approx. 2.5 km north of the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee, east of the Jordan, on an elevation (et-Tell). It was settled in the Early Bronze I/II period, renovated in Iron Age II with a temple and public buildings; their foundations were reused in the resettlement that began in 300 bce. Mentioned in Matt 11:21//Luke 10:13; Mark 6:45 and 8:22–26 (healing of the blind man), Beth-Saida is …

Mosaic Art

(3,446 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf | Strohmaier-Wiederwanders, Gerlinde
[German Version] I. Concept and Techniques – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. Jewish Antiquity – IV. Christian Antiquity – V. Development until the Present I. Concept and Techniques Mosaics are used to decorate floors, walls, and ceilings with geometric, floral, and figurative motifs in color or black and white. The oldest examples of floor mosaics (5th cent. bce) were uncovered in North Africa and Greece, and are attested in the entire Mediterranean since the age of Hellenism. Walls and ceilings were also decorated with mosaics from the early Ro…


(357 words)

Author(s): Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] (Zippori) is located on a small rise on the southern edge of the Battuf Plain, north of Nazareth. Some Iron II finds indicate settlement in the 10th–8th centuries; the earliest mention in written sources dates from the 1st century bce. Herod the Great took the city in 37 bce; unrest after his death was suppressed by the Romans. Herod Antipas renamed it Autocratoris and built fortifications but moved c. 20 ce to the newly founded Tiberias. Sepphoris was not involved in the First Jewish Revolt (66–73 ce) or the Bar Kokhba Revolt (132–135). In the 2nd century it was r…