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(287 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, the usual modern Muslim spelling of the Indian river which rises in Tehrī in the Himālaya and falls into the Ganges at Allāhābād. Generally called Jamnā (older Jumna) on western maps, its Sanskrit name Yamunā has been largely re-adopted in modern India; it was known to Ptolemy as Διαμούνα, to Arrian as ’Ιωβαρής, and to Pliny as Iomanes the spellings Gemini (Roe) and Gemna (Bernier) occur among early European travellers. Early Muslim historians of India refer to it as . Its depth and width have made it a natural frontier in the division of territory in north India, between …


(435 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, commonly called Gurū Nānak , Hindū religious reformer, born in the village of Talwandī some 50 km/30 miles south-west of Lāhawr, in 874/1469, some half a century after Kabīr [ q.v.] and died in 945/1538; there is much in common between the two teachers, both in the rejection of formal Hinduism and in the acceptance of ideas derived from Islam, especially an uncompromising monotheism. The Talwandī district was well forested, and the young Nānak is said to have resorted often to the religious recluses who had setded there, Hi…


(283 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a fortified town of the Deccan [see dakhan ], 17 53′ N., 76 57′ E., about 37 miles west of Bīdar [ q.v.]. In the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries, it was the capital of the Late Western Čālukya rād̲j̲ās, passing later to the Yādavas of Devagiri (= Dawlatābād, [ q.v.]); after the foundation of the Bahmanī [ q.v.] dynasty at Devagiri, Kalyāni was annexed as one of the strongholds on their northern borders; but there had presumably been a previous ¶ Muslim conquest of the town since an inscription is preserved of a d̲j̲āmiʿ masd̲j̲id founded by Ulug̲h̲ K̲h̲ān (later su…


(4,036 words)

Author(s): Algar, Hamid | Burton-Page, J.
, a Persian Ṣūfī order that soon after its inception in the 8th/14th century transferred its loyalties to S̲h̲īʿī Islam. The Niʿmat Allāhiyya first took root in south-eastern Persia where it continued to prosper until the time of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās. For the next two centuries it survived only in the Deccani branch that had been established in the 9th/15th century. Reintroduced into Persia with considerable vigour in the early 13th/late 18th century, the Niʿmat Allāhiyya became the most widespread Ṣūfī order in the country, a position it has retained until recent times. 1. The founder and th…


(305 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a hill-fort in the Barār region of ¶ India [see berār ], in lat. 21°15′N. and long. 77°4′E., in the former Ḥaydarābād native state (now in Maharās̲h̲tra State), at the southernmost end of the Satpura hills. The fortress is presumably pre-Muslim, since Firis̲h̲ta ( Guls̲h̲an-i Ibrāhīmī ), states that it was restored and repaired by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Bahmanī between 828-31/1425-8, and the earliest buildings there appear to be of the Bahmanī period, although later the fort passed into ʿImād S̲h̲āhī [ q.v.] hands. It played an important role in the warfare of the rulers in the Decca…


(155 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
The Elurā (Ellora) caves, near Dawlatābād [ q.v.], appear in the history of Muslim India only as the scene of the capture of the Gud̲j̲arāt princess Deval Devī, the future bride of Ḵh̲iḍr Ḵh̲ān [ q.v.], for ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī by Alp Ḵh̲ān. who had given his forces leave to visit the cave temples (Firis̲h̲ta, Lucknow lith., i, 117). These caves were justly famous and were described by some early travellers, e.g., Masʿūdī, iv, 95, copied with much distortion of names by Ḳazwīnī, cf. Gildemeister, Scriptorum Arabutn de rebus Indicis , text 79, trans. 221; Musl…


(839 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, in the histories also Gāwīl , Gāwīlgaŕh , a fortress “of almost matchless strength” (Abu ’l-Faḍl, Āʾīn -i Akbarī , Eng. tr. Jarrett, ii, 237) in Berār, Central India, lat. 21° 20′ N., long. 77° 18′ E., seven kos (about 25 km.) north-west of Eličpur (Iličpur [ q.v.]). According to Firis̲h̲ta the fortress was built by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Walī [see bahmanīs ] in 829/1425-6; but from its name it appears to have been a former stronghold of the Gāwalī chiefs, and it is more likely that Aḥmad S̲h̲āh merely strengthened the fortifications during t…


(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…


(3,396 words)

Author(s): Imamuddin, S.M. | Burton-Page, J.
, a North Indian Afghān tribe and dynasty, 855-932/1451-1526. 1. History. Afg̲h̲ān tribes from the mountainous Sulaymān regions regularly migrated to the plain of the Indus; they joined the invading armies as auxiliaries in war, and came as traders or herdsmen during peace. They moved to the hills in summer and to the plains at the onset of winter. Among these emigrants were the ancestors of the Lōdī sultans of India. For the Afg̲h̲āns in India generally, see pathān and rohila. The Lōdīs are related to a clan of the G̲h̲ilzay tribe of Afg̲h̲ānistān [see g̲h̲alzay ] an…


(3,688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Burton-Page, J. | Andrews, P.A. | Ed.
(a.), the measurement of plane surfaces, also in modern usage, survey, the technique ofsurv eying. In this article, measures of length and area will be considered, those of capacity, volume and weight having been dealt with under makāyīl wamawāzīn . For the technique of surveying, see misāḥa, ʿilm al- . 1. In the central Islamic lands. In pre-modern times, there were a bewildering array of measures for length and superficial area, often with the same name but differing locally in size and extent. As Lane despairingly noted, “of the measures and…


(502 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
, 9th letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed d̲h̲ ; numerical value 700, in the Eastern system [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiced interdental fricative; according to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mad̲j̲hūra . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : lit̲h̲awiyya in al-K̲h̲alīl (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲ari, Muf ., 191, line 2, 2nd ed. J. P. Broch) indicates a position of the tongue on the lit̲h̲a “gum”, therefore gingival . Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ (1460, line 21, ed. G. Jahn) records a position quite close to this, “the base of the central incisors”, and therefore alveolar . S…


(645 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan, some 75 miles south of D̲j̲odhpur on the left bank of the Sukrī river. Although the troops of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī had passed through D̲j̲ālor on their return from the conquest of Gud̲j̲arāt in 696/1297, it was not then occupied by them. In Ḏj̲umādā I 705/December ¶ 1305, however, that king sent ʿAyn al-Mulk, governor of Multān, on an expedition to D̲j̲ālor, Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn and Čandērī; he was opposed by an army of 150,000 Hindūs on his entry into Mālwā, and his victory over them, which brought Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn, D̲h̲ār, Mānd́ū, and Čandērī [ qq.v.] into M…


(2,688 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, term used in India for those African communities whose ancestors originally came to the country as slaves, in most cases from the Horn of Africa, although some doubtless sprang from the slave troops of the neighbouring Muslim countries. The majority, at least in the earlier periods, may well have been Abyssinian, but certainly the name was applied indiscriminately to all Africans, and in the days of the Portuguese slave-trade with India many such ‘Ḥabs̲h̲īs’ were in fact of the Nilotic and Bantu races. There is little detailed information concerning the numbers, the status an…


(27,665 words)

Author(s): Khadduri, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Et al.
, war. i.— Legal Aspect Ḥarb may mean either fighting ( ḳitāl ) in the material sense or a “state of war” between two or more groups; both meanings were implied in the legal order of pre-Islamic Arabia. Owing to lack of organized authority, war became the basis of inter-tribal relationship. Peace reigned only when agreed upon between two or more tribes. Moreover, war fulfilled such purposes as vendetta and retaliation. The desert, adapted to distant raids and without natural frontiers, rendered the Arabs habituated to warfare and fighting became a function of society. Islam, prohibiting …


(1,889 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W. | Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
5th letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed d̲j̲ ; numerical value 3, so agreeing, like dāl , with the order of the letters of the Syriac (and Canaanite) alphabet [see abd̲j̲ad ]. It represents a g (occlusive, postpalatal1, voiced) in the ancient Semitic (and in common Semitic). In Arabic, This articulation has evolved: the point of articulation has been carried forward, in an unconditioned way 2, to the middle and prepalatal region, as a consequence of which it readily developed elements of palatalization ( g y and d y) and affrication ( d̲j̲). A simplification of the articulation …

Dār al-Ḍarb

(4,784 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Burton-Page, J.
, the mint, was an indispensable institution in the life of mediaeval Middle Eastern society because of the highly developed monetary character of its economy, particularly during the early centuries of Muslim domination. The primary function of the mint was to supply coins for the needs of government and of the general public. At times of monetary reforms the mints served also as a place where obliterated coins could be exchanged for the new issues. The large quantities of precious metals which were stored in the mints helped to make them serve as ancillary treasuries. Soon after their c…


(121 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, called Sulṭān Dāniyāl in the histories, the youngest and favourite son of the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar, born Ad̲j̲mēr 2 D̲j̲umāda I 979/22 September 1571. In 1008/1599 he was appointed military governor of the Deccan, and after his conquest of the city of Aḥmadnagar (1009/1601) he was honoured by Akbar and given the province of K̲h̲āndēs̲h̲, fancifully named Dāndēs̲h̲ after him. He is described as well-built, good-looking, fond of horses, and skilful in the composition of Hindūstānī poems. He figures in Abu ’l-Faḍl’s lists of the grandees of the empire ( Āʾīn-i Akbarī

Kanawd̲j̲ or Kannawd̲j̲

(808 words)

Author(s): Longworth Dames, M. | Burton-Page, J.
(Sanskrit Kanaakubd̲j̲a; known to the Arabic geographers as Ḳannawd̲j̲, Ḳinnawd̲j̲, the latter form used also in Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam ), town in Farruk̲h̲ābād district, Uttar Prades̲h̲, India, 27°3’ N., 79°56’ E., formerly also the surrounding district. It has been identified, not beyond question, with Ptolemy’s Κάναγορα/Κάναγοζα; it is certainly referred to in the travels of Fa-Hsien (A.D. 405) as a city under the Guptas, and as a capital and great Buddhist centre at the time of Hsüan Tsʾang’s travels, circa A.D. 641, when under the great Harṣavardhana it had become the chief …

S̲h̲arīf D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Aḥsan

(309 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, d. 740/1339, first Sultan of Madura [ q.v.]. A native of Kaythal in the Pand̲j̲āb, he is known from a well-inscription (cf. B. D. Verma, in Epigraphia Indica , Arabic and Persian Supplement , 1955-6, 109 ff.) to have been nāʾib-i iḳṭāʿ in the province of Maʿbar [ q.v.] in 725/ 1324; later he was appointed governor by Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ (or, according to ʿIṣāmī, Futūḥ al-Salāṭīn , 449, was kotwāl [ q.v.] at Madura and usurped the government), but shortly after This, in 735/1335, he proclaimed his independence under the title of D̲j̲alāl al-(Dunyā wa ’l)-Dīn Aḥsan…


(565 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
A district in Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.] in the present Bombay State, India, of about 1450 sq.m. and with a population of some 300,000; the Islamic population was about 20% of the total prior to partition in 1947, but much of this has since moved to Sind in Pakistān. The principal class of Muslims was Bohrā [see bohorās ]. Bharoč is also the name of the principal town of that district, Lat. 21°42′N., Long. 73° 2′E. It is first known as a town within the Mawrya dominions, and later (c. 150 A.D.) to have been in the hands of Parthian Sāhas; from the Middle Indian form bharugaccha- of the Sanskrit bhṛgukṣetra-
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