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Cyparissus

(325 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Κυπάρισσος; Kypárissos). [German version] [1] Of Ceos of Ceos, beloved of  Apollo. Pained because he had accidentally killed his own favourite stag, C. begged to be allowed to mourn for ever and was turned into a cypress (Ov. Met. 10,106-142). Even though Ovid provides the earliest documentary evidence, the story itself is believed to be much older [1. 52]. In Servius' version, C. is a son of  Telephus, also hailing from Crete, also beloved of  Zephyrus or  Silvanus, but the stag was killed by Silvanu…

Cnemis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κνημίς; Knēmís). Mountain in  Locris; together with Chlomon, the highest peak (938 m) in the chain that with its foothills forms a mosaic of valleys and passes connecting the narrow, east Locrian coastal band with the hinterland; in the south the C. reaches the lower Cephissus valley and the Copais plain. The C. represents the natural boundary between Locris Hypocnemidia and Locris Epicnemidia. Its formation is ascribed to the predominantly vertical tectonic movement that in the o…

Panopeus

(390 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πανοπεύς; Panopeús). City in eastern Phocis in the northern part of the Cephisus valley at a height of 335 m near modern Hagios Vlasios on the border with Boeotia, on the “Sacred Way” leading from Athens to Delphi, about 4 km from Chaeronea. P. is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of Phocean cities (Hom. Il. 2,519-523) and was the residence of the Phocean kings (Hom. Il. 17,306-309; Paus. 10,4,2). Its founding is attributed to the Phlegyae expelled from Orchomenus [1] (Paus. 10,4…

Patronis

(85 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πατρωνίς; Patrōnís). City in eastern Phocis (Plut. Sulla 15,4), identical with Trōnís (Τρωνίς, Paus. 10,4,10; CID 2,208,1; 9) with a heroon of Archegetes of Phocis. Remains of the wall at modern Hagia Marina. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 50-53  Ph. Ntasios, Συμβολή στην τοπογραφίαν της Ἀρχαίας Φωκίδος, in: Phokikon Chronikon 4, 1992, 25f.  J. McInerney, The Phokikon and the Hero Archegetes, in: Hesperia 66, 1997, 193-207  Id, The Folds of Parnassos, 1999, 284-286.

Elatea

(685 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐλάτεια; Eláteia). [German version] [1] Phocian town This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In antiquity together with  Delphi (Str. 9,3,2) the largest (Paus. 10,34,1-2; Str. 9,2,19; Harpocr., Suda s.v. E.) and most famous Phocian town. Located in the farthest north of the Cephissus valley near modern Elatia (Leftà), E. dominated the road that led south from Thessaly and Locris through the passes of Thermopylae and Hyampolis. This location made E. a lively c…

Tolophon

(88 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τολοφών; Tolophṓn). Port in western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,3; Dionysios Kalliphontos 66 f.) near modern Vidavi, where remains of city walls are visible near Galaxidi. Frequent mentions of the inhabitants of T. in inscriptions from Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 50 f.; 138-145; vol. 2, 1952, passim  Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 372, n. 2  K. Braun, s. v. T., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 688  G. J. Szemler, T., in: E. W. Kase et al. (eds.), The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vo…

Oeanthea

(237 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰανθέα/ Oìanthéa, Οἰάνθεια/ Oiántheia, Εὐάνθεια/ Euántheia, Latin Oianthe). Town in western Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) near the modern Vitrinitsa on the Gulf of Krisa like its neighbour  Chaleum (modern Galaxidi). Earliest evidence: a metrical funerary inscription (? 625-600 BC: IG IX,1, 867; SGDI 3188; Tod 1, 4) for a próxenos from Corcyra, and an agreement on judicial assistance with Chaleum (450 or later: IG IX 12, 717; Tod 1, 34; StV 2, 146 [2]). In the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, Spartan troops under Eurylochus [2] marched through O. wi…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Castalia

(253 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κασταλία; Kastalía, Lat. Castalia). Spring in  Delphi, dedicated to Apollo and the Muses, located at the exit of the gorge of the Phaedriades, its waters discharging into the river Pappadia; according to a -- geologically incorrect -- ancient assumption, the spring was fed by the Cephissus [1], which flows on the opposite slope of Mount Parnassus (Paus. 10,8,9f.; schol. Pind. Paean 6,5; POxy. 5, 841). In literature, C. is often used synonymously with  Delphi. The Castalian water, wh…

Cachales

(71 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καχάλης; Kachálēs). Tributary to the Cephisus river in Phocis, today called Kakorrema, flowing below the mountain fortress of Tithorea. C. was the source of the city's water supply (Paus. 10,32,11). The Greek name C. means ‘impetuous, noisy river’ (cf. καχλάζειν; kachlázein, ‘to make noise, to roar’). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. Kachales, RE 10, 1456 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 1981, 424 n. 1.

Locri, Locris

(4,613 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Musti, Domenico (Rome) | Del Monaco, Lavinio (Rome)
(Λοκροί, Λοκρίς; Lokroí, Lokrís). [1] Region in Greece [German version] A. Geography Locris comprised two regions in central Greece, separated from one another by two mountain ranges ( Parnassus, Callidromus and the valley of the Cephis(s)us): 1) Western L. with the plain south of the Gavia Pass from Amphissa to the Gulf of Corinth, bordered by the slopes of Parnassus and Corax; it extended to the west in a narrow coastal strip across the promontory Antirrhium and bordered on Aetolia, Doris, Phocis, Delphi and the hierà chṓra of the Apollo sanctuary. 2) Eastern L. comprised the s…

Naryca

(461 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ναρύκα/ Narýka, lit. also Νᾶρυξ/ Nâryx). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Locrians [1]) on the road from the Spercheus Valley via Thermopylae to Phocis, localized by inscriptions found in the church of Hagios Ioannes near Paleokastro at Rengini, approx. 8 km southeast of Mendenitsa ([1], cf. [2]; formerly believed to be at Atalante [3. 1138] or Kalapodi [4. 187]). Given its favourable setting in a fertile valley that was linked to the ocean via Thronion and located on the axis connecting n…

Amphicaea, Amphiclea

(153 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ἀμφίκαια, Ἀμφίκλεια; Amphíkaia, Amphíkleia). In eastern  Phocis at the foot of Mount  Parnassus, on the southern edge of the central Cephissus valley; archaeological traces (late Mycenaean and 8th cent. BC), remains of a ring of wall and towers ( c. 5th-4th cent. BC). Destroyed during the Persian invasion of 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and again at the end of the Third Sacred War in 346 BC (Paus. 10,3,2); rebuilt as Amphikleia (called Dadi(on) from the Middle Ages, nowadays once more…

Charadra

(331 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(χαράδρα; charádra). Generic Greek term for non-perennial streams or rivers, or deeply eroded valleys and gorges (Italian torrente, Modern Greek rhevma) [1]. Attic inscriptions of the  Poletai, especially mining leases, mention many charadrai [2]. [German version] [1] Major river in northern Attica Major river in northern Attica, springing from the north-eastern foot of the Parnes and flowing into the plain of Marathon; also called the Marathon stream or the Oenoe [3; 4]. Proverbial in referring to troubles brought upon oneself, as a la…

Delphi

(3,801 words)

Author(s): Maaß, Michael (Karlsruhe) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Celts | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Δελφοί; Delphoí), Delphi. I. Topography and Archaeology [German version] A. Site Delphi, with its sanctuary of Apollo, lies at an altitude of 533 to 600 m. on the south slope of Mt. Parnassus (main summit 2,457 m.), by the cleft of the Castalia Gorge. The Phaedriads (around …

Scarphea

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (Σκάρφεια/ Skárpheia). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Hom. Il. 2,532;  cf. Str. 9,4,4; Tab. Peut. 8,1; Geogr. Rav. 375,6), near modern Molo in a seismically active zone, seriously affected by tsunamis in 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6; Thuc. 2,32) and AD 551 (Procop. Goth. 4,25,16-23). Initially in rivalry with Thronium for dominance in the region (cf. the conflict over the number of Delphic hieromnḗmones and border conflicts: FdD vol. 3, 38,3; 42,7), in Late Anti…

Pleistus

(117 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλειστός/ Pleistós; literary form Πλεῖστος/ Pleîstos, Herodianus, De prosodia catholica 217). River, modern Xeropotami, and valley in western Phocis at the southern foot of Mount Parnassus, where Delphi was located. It flows into the Gulph of Corinth in the east of the plain of Itea. Material remains attest to settlement from Protohelladic II onwards; the greatest density of settlement is found in the Mycenaean Period. Cf. Paus. 10,8,8; 37,7; Str. 9,3,3; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711. Crisa Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 21, …

Plygonium

(99 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλυγόνιον/ Plygónion). Western Locrian locality in the west of Delphi, unknown to ancient literature. In Delphic inscriptions before 190 BC - the year P. was incorporated into Delphi - the Πλυγόνεις/ Plygóneis are frequently mentioned. It should be distinguished from a Phlygonium  ([1] as opposed to [2]) in Phocis. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. P., RE Suppl. 14, 385-387 2 E. Kirsten, s.v. Phlygonion, RE 20, 306-308. G. Daux, Delphes au IIe et au Ier siècle, 1936, 230-234, esp. 234  L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'Ouest, vol. 1, 1952…

Oeneon

(207 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰνεών/ Oineṓn; also Οἰνόη/ Oinóe, regularly after the 5th cent. BC, or Οἰνόα/ Oinóa). Town in western Locris, east of Naupactus, near the modern Klima on the Paleochori hill (remains of city wall ring), with a harbour (modern Monastirakio). As the death of Hesiod (Hesiodus) was documented at the nearby sanctuary of Zeus Nemeios (Thuc. 3,96,1), O. can be identified with Oinoe (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 215-254; Tzetz. Vita Hesiodi 97; 101; 104; cf. Plut. Mor. 162 e-f). It is uncertain whether the ethnikon Oinaîos (Οἰναῖος) or Oinoaîos (Οἰνοαῖος) in inscriptions f…

Lilaea

(206 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λίλαια; Lílaia, Ptol. 3,14,4; Λίλαιον; Lílaion, schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121). City in Phocis at the Cephisus sources (Hom. Il. 2,523; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385; Str. 9,2,10; Paus. 10,35,5); named after the daughter of the river god Cephisus (Paus. 10,33,4); cf. the coins of L. [1. 17f.]; HN 339; 343). L. lies on the north-eastern slope of the Parnassus in a strategically favourable position on the traffic axis between the upper Cephisus valley and the Pleistus valley, c. 33 km from Delphi (Paus. 10,33,2). Finds come from the prehistoric to the Late Helladic a…
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