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Lilaea

(206 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λίλαια; Lílaia, Ptol. 3,14,4; Λίλαιον; Lílaion, schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121). City in Phocis at the Cephisus sources (Hom. Il. 2,523; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385; Str. 9,2,10; Paus. 10,35,5); named after the daughter of the river god Cephisus (Paus. 10,33,4); cf. the coins of L. [1. 17f.]; HN 339; 343). L. lies on the north-eastern slope of the Parnassus in a strategically favourable position on the traffic axis between the upper Cephisus valley and the Pleistus valley, c. 33 km from Delphi (Paus. 10,33,2). Finds come from the prehistoric to the Late Helladic a…

Phlygonium

(148 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Φλυγόνιον/ Phlygónion). Phocian town. Whether it was located in the north-west of the small plain of Tséresi is uncertain; the remains of the fortifications on the hill of Palaiokastron have been attributed to it. P. was among the cities destroyed in 346 BC at the instigation of Philippus [4] II (Paus. 10,3,2); the name P. also appears in the reports of the treasurers of Delphi after 324/3 (CID II 108 l. 10). In c. 140 BC (FdD III 2, 136), P. and Ambryssus, probably as part of a sympoliteía , together established the borders of their territory with that of Delphi. Daverio Rocchi…

Daphnus

(113 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Δαφνοῦς; Daphnoûs). Port of the Locri Epicnemidii (Str. 9,3,17; Plin. HN. 4,27), today known as Agios Konstantinos, situated on the coastal plain of Longus on the Euboean Gulf. From the time of the first Sacred War ( c. 590 BC) the entire coastal strip belonged to the Phocians (Scyl. 61; Str. 9,3,1), who secured an access to the Aegean Sea via D. After the third Sacred War D. was returned to Locris in 346 BC. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, …

Anticyra

(374 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Ἀντίκυρα; Antíkyra). [German version] [1] Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus, in 480 BC still the location of its mouth into the sea (Hdt. 7,198), near the modern village of Komma. Originally, A. was part of the  Achaean Phthiotis, then fell to the  Malians in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), and from about 280 BC, it was a member of the  Oeteaen league.  Ephialtes, who in 480 BC had betrayed to the Persians the way around The…

Daulis, Daulia

(256 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δαυλίς , Δαυλία; Daulís, Daulía). City in eastern Phocis, c. 1 km south of modern Davleia. Its location on one of the foothills of the Parnassus made access to it naturally difficult and gave it strategic importance because both the narrow pass between the lower and upper Cephissus valley as well as the road from  Chaeronea to  Delphi could be controlled by it (Hell. Oxy. 13,5; Liv. 32,18,7). Etymologically, its name is derived from …

Pedieis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πεδιεῖς; Pedieîs). Town in the upper Cephisus valley in eastern Phocis whose location is pinpointed as being near Palio Thiva, 5 km north-northeast of modern Tithorea. However, this location has also been suggested for Neon [6]. P. lay on the right bank of the river where traces of the wall ring have been preserved. P. was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and laid waste by the Boeotians in 395 BC (Hell. Oxy. 18(13),5). In 360 BC it appeared in the list of those paying contributions towards the rebuilding of the temple of Delphi (CID II 5 Z. 55f.). Daverio Rocchi, G…

Tarphe

(48 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τάρφη/ Tárphē). City in eastern Locris (Hom. Il. 2,533); according to  Str. 9,4,6  the original place name of Pharygae (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; s. v. Φαρύγαι; s. v. Θρόνιον). Location unknown. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. W. Kase et al., The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vol. 1, 1991, 88.

Tethronion

(104 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τεθρώνιον; Tethrṓnion). City in eastern Phocis (Hdt. 8,33; Plin. HN 4,8) on the northern edge of the valley of the upper Cephis(s)us [1], 20 stadia from Drymus [1], 15 stadia from Amphicaea (Paus. 10,33,12); presumably to the northeast of modern Amphikleia or on a hill 5 km to the south of modern T. with ancient remains of city walls. In 480 BC destroyed by the Persians (Hdt. 8,33; Paus. 10,3,2), in 208 BC occupied by Philippus [7] V (Liv. 28,7,13). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, Bd. 5, 1981, 431  Müller, 5…

Cynus

(168 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κῦνος; Kŷnos). Town of Opuntian  Locris (Hom. Il. 2,531; Scyl. 60; Lycoph. Alexandra 1147; Ptol. 3,15,9; Plin. HN 4,27; Hecat. in Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.; Mela 2,3,40) and ship mooring place (ἐπίνειον; epíneion, emporium) of  Opus (Paus. 10,1,2; Str. 9,4,2; Steph. Byz. loc. cit.; Liv. 28,6,12). The settlement covered the peak of the hill, known as modern Palaiopyrgos or Pyrgos after the ruins of the ancient walls and after a medieval tower that juts out over the little bay on the northern tip of the plain of Ataland…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Korykion Antron

(162 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κωρύκιον ἄντρον; Kōrýkion ántron). A grotto (Quaternary period) with two chambers, named after Apollo's daughter Corycia (Paus. 10,6,3), on the northern side of Parnassus (on a height of 1,360 m) above Delphi (today's Sarandavli). The cavern, which Str. 9,3,1 and Paus. 10,32,2 regarded as most beautiful, was used by the neighbouring population as a place of refuge (in the Persian invasion of 480 BC, Hdt. 8,36,2), but primarily, as a cult site from as early as the end of the 8th cen…

Macynia

(144 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μακυνία, Μακύνεια; Makynía, Makýneia, ethnicon Μακυνιεύς; Makynieús). Coastal town in west Locris north-west of Antirrhium in the region of Mamakou, possibly on the Paleokastro, at a short distance from Taphiassus (modern Klokova; Str. 10,2,4; 6; 21; Plin. HN 4,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.); remains of the city walls (from about the 4th/3rd cents. BC), probably built after the incorporation of M. into the Aetolian League (in 338 BC; Aetolians). According to Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15, who cites…

Naupactus

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Peloponnesian War (Ναύπακτος/ Naúpaktos, Latin Naupactus). [German version] I. Location Coastal town in West Locris (Locrians [1]), about 9 km from the strait of Rhion and Antirrhion, protected by a promontory of the Rhigani mountains (cf. Scyl. 35; Str. 9,4,7; 10,2,3; Plin. HN 4,6; Ptol. 3,14). The plains to the east and west of N. were very fertile but exhausted by olive and grain cultivation. The chṓra of Naupactus ( Naupaktía) included most of the coastal plain (Pol. 5,103,4) and ascended …

Boundaries

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(ὅρος/ hóros, μεθορία/ methoría; Latin finis, limes). [German version] I. Subjective and objective frontier perception The earliest evidence for the perception of the topographical dimensions of frontier zones predates the concept of the state. In Greece, differences in burial rites, cults of the dead and of heroes and the territorial distribution of crafted goods since the Iron Age point to actions motivated socially and subjectively, defining ethnically coherent communities or peoples as distinct from others…

Amphissa

(444 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Ἄμφισσα; Ámphissa). Largest town of western  Locris (Paus. 10,38,4; Str. 9,3,4. 4,7 f.; from the Middle Ages called Salona, nowadays once again A.), located in the north of the fertile plain of  Crisa (Str. loc. cit.) c. 15 km north-west of  Delphi, where the road from western Locris joined that from Doris and Delphi. Both the desire of this wealthy agrarian town to expand into the Crisaean plain, and its key strategic position in central Greece are possible reasons for it…

Crisa

(523 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κρίσα). City in West Phocis (Κρίσα: Hom. Il. 2,520; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 115a; Pind. Isthm. 2,18; Soph. El. 180; Str. 9,3,3; Paus. 10,37,5; Plin. HN 4,7; Frontin. Str. 3,7,6; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1 hypoth.; Ptol. 3,14,4; Hsch. s.v. Κ.; Κρίσσα/η: Hom. H. Apollon 282; Eust. in Hom. Il. 526; Κίρσα: Alc. fr. 121 D.), toponym of the alluvial plain bounded in the SE by Cirphis and Parnassus (Κρισαῖον πεδίον: Hdt. 8,32; modern plain of Itea) on the bay of the Corinthian Gulf. C. lies on a rock…
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