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Promanteia

(156 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] (προμαντεία/ promanteía). Privilege, first awarded in recognition of special merits in the 5th cent. BC by Delphi to cities (Plut. Pericles 21,2), and from the early 4th cent. also to individuals (Syll.3 155; FdD 3,4,9), conveying precedence when questioning the oracle of Apollo (cf. Hdt. 1,54 on the - probably unhistorical - promanteía of Croesus). From the 4th cent. on, the promanteía was often awarded along with other political privileges, esp. the proxenía (inscriptions from the 5th to 1st cents. BC, e.g., in FdD 3,1-6). The promanteía of Delphi attests both to…

Grotto

(425 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] The word grotto is borrowed from Greek kryptós (‘concealed, hidden’; Italian grotta, French grotte). Grotto is occasionally used as a synonym for cave but it mostly describes in particular caves with natural or artificially irrigation. In religious history grottos appear in the following contexts: 1. Grotto sanctuaries of the prehistoric period: here it is worth mentioning the cult sites of north-western European peoples that were situated in grottos and often painted with religious and mythol…

Feronia

(460 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] Name of a goddess with several cult-places in central Italy, which were all located outside of municipal centres, as well as a sacred spring in Aquileia. The etymology of her name is as uncertain as the origins of the cult. In line with Varro, Ling. 5,74, modern scholars assume that F. was a Sabine deity. In contrast with earlier assumptions, Etruria is now generally rejected as the cult's place of origin [1. 309; 2. 407]. The archaeological findings in particular support the noti…

Septimontium

(293 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] Roman festival on 'seven hills', celebrated on December 11 (= III ID. DEC.). Already in Antiquity, the S. was associated with the foundation of the city of Rome (Antistius Labeo in Fest. p. 474; Paul. Fest. p. 459 L.; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 69). The hills to which feriae ('holidays') applied (Palatinus, Velia, Fagutal, Cermalus, Caelius, Oppius, Cispius) [2. 203 f.] were not identical to the 'classical' seven hills of the city which subsequently became canonical. The idea of a proto-urban settlement of Rome on t…

Superstitio

(772 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] A. Introduction The etymology of superstitio cannot be determined with any certainty (from superstes in the extended sense of the 'remains left' after a sacrifice, or from superstitiosus in the sense of 'telling fortunes or prophesying': Cic. Nat. D. 2,28,72). It is of no particular relevance for our understanding of the concept in different contexts [1. 387; 5. 633; 7. 101], as the discourse of ancient commentators is based on various concepts of superstitio. Outside the field of religion, into Late Antiquity (and beyond) superstitio and superstitiosus are used in…

Bacchanal(ia)

(634 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] In its oldest source, the   senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus from 186 BC, the Latin word bacchanal is used in the singular to designate a place of cult worship (Schuhmacher, Roman Inscription II 11). In the plural, it designates religious groups and cult rituals (Macrob. Sat. 1,18,1-5). The term bacchanal is based on a cult name of  Bacchus, the Greek Dionysus, or rather his offshoot Pacha, epithet of the Etruscan god Fufluns who was identified with Dionysus [1. 127] (detailed history of the term [6. 24f.]). It is controversial what type of cult place a bacchanal could …

Nutrix

(171 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] (plural Nutrices). Latin name of female deities who, as wetnurses, were nurturers and protectors of divine or human children. Three areas can be distinguished: (1) in myth, e.g. as a nurse of Jupiter (Amaltheia [1], Ov. Fast. 5,127), also metonymically as ‘nurturing mother earth’ (Hor. Carm. 1,22); (2) in the cult in and around Poetovio, where two shrines and numerous reliefs and inscriptions consecrated to the Nutrices Augustae were found [1]; the iconography shows seated female deities (individually or as a group) who are nursing children or to…

Harioli

(186 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] The etymology and meaning of the term harioli are not clear: harioli is either a diminutive formation of haruspexHaruspices ) or it is derived from Latin ara (‘altar’) [1. 886]. In ancient Rome, persons were referred to as harioli, who were knowledgeable in the various forms of  divination and who told fortunes for private persons. Since the term is always used in a derogatory sense (e.g. Cato Agr. 5,4; Catull. 90,2; in the comedy amongst others Plaut. Cist. 746; Plaut. Men. 76; Plaut. Mostell. 571 and 791; Plaut. …

Promantis

(136 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] (πρόμαντις/ prómantis). Greek term for women or men who spoke oracles on behalf of gods. At Delphi (cf. Apollo), the word prómantis was often used as a synonym for the Pythia [1] (e.g. Hdt. 7,141; Paus. 3,4,3 ff.). In literary sources, the term is also used for prophetic figures of other oracles, e.g. in Patara/Lycia (Hdt. 1,182) and by Lake Copais/Thebes (Hdt. 8,135). No specific forms of divination can be associated with the term prómantis [1. 224 ff.]; however, on various occasions literary reports refer to trance-like states in which the prómantis utters the oracle,…

Cave sanctuaries

(283 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] Cave sanctuaries existed in antiquity in two contexts in particular: firstly as ‘sacred caves’ of the Bronze Age and Neolithic cultures, as well as of the Minoan palace period in Crete, and secondly as ‘initiation caves’ in the archaic period and classical Greek periods, later also in the Roman West. The caves of Minoan Crete in particular have been relatively well researched. Fifteen caves are definitely confirmed there (incl. the caves of Skotinó at Knossos, and the caves of Vernapheto and Kamares), whilst it is assumed that ad…

Calata comitia

(306 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] Apart from the   comitia curiata the earliest form of the Roman people's Assembly convened by the   pontifices twice yearly [1. 215] (about 6th-4th cents. BC). The calata comitia (CC) take their name from the word calare (‘to call’; cf. Fest. p. 251 s.v. procalare) that was common in priestly language etc. in conjunction with the ‘proclamation’ of the dies fasti ( Calendar) [2. 312]. The sources have passed down to us the occasions for the convening of the CC -- the   inauguratio of the rex (later of the rex sacrorum) and the so-called ‘great Flamines’ of Rome (Gell. …

Mola salsa

(139 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] A mixture of spelt groats and brine that was prepared by the Vestal Virgins (e.g. Varro in Non. 223) and used as a sacrificial offering in Roman cult; in the sacra publica , it was sprinkled on the sacrificial animal by the magistrate or priest as part of the immolatio (cf., for example, Cic. Div. 2,37, Serv. Aen. 2,133 and 4,57). The spelt ears from the new harvest were presented to the Vestal Virgins between the 7th and 14th of May, then dried, pounded and ground. The ground spelt was then made into mola salsa by adding the brine during the Lupercalia and Vestalia (Vesta…

Dedicatio

(171 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] (from dedicare, ‘dedicate/consecrate’). In Latin texts (inscriptions and literature) the most frequent expression for the transfer of objects and property (plots of land, temples, altars, votive offerings) to a divinity. The term was used in connection with private as well as official  dedications (private i.a. Suet. Vit. 7,10,3 and Dig. 24,1,5,12; official i.a. Suet. Tib. 3,40,1 and Dig. 1,8,6,3). The distinction between private and official dedicatio resided in the fact that in the case of official dedication the object or item of property ac…

Consecratio

(544 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] Verbal noun of consecrare, ‘to dedicate, to declare as sacrum’; a legal act by magistrates -- often together with  pontifices -- in which the consecrated object was withdrawn from worldly/human use. A specifically Roman procedure, since in Roman understanding temples, cult images, altars and cult instruments did not have an ‘autogenous’ sacred quality. A differentiation by content between consecratio and   dedicatio is occasionally alleged for the Republican period (e.g. [1. 399]), but the two terms were used synonymously…

Harioli

(172 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[English version] Etym. und Bed. des Begriffs H. sind unklar: H. ist entweder eine Diminutivbildung von haruspex ( haruspices ) oder leitet sich von lat. ara (“Altar”) her [1. 886]. Als H. wurden im ant. Rom Personen bezeichnet, die sich in verschiedenen Formen der Divination auskannten und für Privatpersonen wahrsagten. Da der Terminus durchweg abwertend gebraucht wird (z.B. Cato agr. 5,4; Catull. 90,2; in der Komödie u.a. Plaut. Cist. 746; Plaut. Men. 76; Plaut. Most. 571 und 791; Plaut. Rud. 326, 347, 377, 1139ff.; T…

Grotte

(395 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[English version] Das Wort G. ist sprachlich dem griech. kryptós (“verborgen, versteckt”; it. grotta, frz. grotte) entlehnt. G. wird gelegentlich syn. zu Höhle gebraucht, bezeichnet aber meistens speziell Höhlen mit natürlicher oder künstlich geschaffener Bewässerung. Rel.geschichtlich sind G. in folgenden Kontexten faßbar: 1. G.-Heiligtümer der vor- und frühgeschich. Zeit: Hier sind zum einen die in G. gelegenen, vielfach mit rel.-myth. Motiven von der Jagd ausgemalten Kultplätze nordwesteurop. Völker z…

Promanteia

(158 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[English version] (προμαντεία). In Anerkennung bes. Verdienste zuerst im 5. Jh. v. Chr. von Delphoi an Städte (Plut. Perikles 21,2) und seit Beginn des 4. Jh. auch an Personen (Syll.3 155; FdD 3,4,9) verliehenes Privileg des Vorranges bei der Befragung des Apollon-Orakels (vgl. Hdt. 1,54 zur - wohl unhistor. - p. des Kroisos). Die p. wurde seit dem 4. Jh. v. Chr. häufig zusammen mit anderen polit. Privilegien verliehen, v. a. der proxenía (Inschr. vom 5. bis 1. Jh. v. Chr. u. a. in FdD 3,1-6). Die p. in Delphi verweist sowohl auf den starken Andrang, der zeitweise beim delphis…

Consecratio

(529 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[English version] Verbalnomen zu consecrare, “weihen, als sacrum erklären”; von Magistraten - häufig zusammen mit pontifices - vorgenommener Rechtsakt, der den geweihten Gegenstand dem weltlichen/menschlichen Gebrauch entzog. Spezifisch röm. Verfahren, da nach röm. Verständnis weder einem Tempel, Kultbild, Altar noch Kultgeräten eine “autogene” Sakralität eigen war. Eine inhaltliche Differenzierung zwischen c. und dedicatio wird zuweilen für die republikanische Zeit unterstellt (z.B. [1. 399]); seit der späten Republik werden d…

Calata comitia

(274 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[English version] Neben den comitia curiata früheste Form der röm. Volksversammlung, von den pontifices zweimal jährlich [1. 215] einberufen (etwa 6.-4.Jh. v.Chr.). Den Namen haben die c.c. von dem Wort calare (“rufen”; vgl. Fest. p. 251 s.v. procalare), das in der Priestersprache u.a. im Zusammenhang mit der Ankündigung, d.h. dem “Ausrufen” der dies fasti (Kalender) gebräuchlich war [2. 312]. Als Anlässe der Einberufung von c.c. überliefern die Quellen die inauguratio des rex (später des rex sacrorum) und der sog. “großen Flamines” Roms (Gell. 15,27,1ff.), die Bekanntgabe der f…

Feronia

(397 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[English version] Name einer Göttin mit mehreren Kultstätten in Mittelitalien, die außerhalb städtischer Zentren lagen, sowie einem Quellheiligtum in Aquileia. Etym. des Namens und Herkunft des Kultes sind unklar. Die mod. Forsch. nimmt mit Varro ling. 5,74 an, daß es sich um eine sabinische Gottheit handelt. Etrurien als Ursprungsgebiet des Kultes wird entgegen früheren Annahmen h. allg. abgelehnt [1. 309; 2. 407]. Für die sabinische Herkunft sprechen v.a. arch. Befunde, d.h. die Situierung ihrer…
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