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Asopus

(479 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἀσωπός; Asōpós). [German version] [1] Small river, flowing to the north out of the Oete range Small river, flowing to the north out of the  Oete range. Before flowing into the plains of Heraclea and Trachis, it forms a deep gorge, passable only in summer ( c. 2.5 km in length, up to 200 m deep, with a width of 6 m at the entrance, and about 30 m at the exit). At the time of the Persian Wars, the A. still had its own delta into the sea (Hdt. 7,200), today it flows under the name of Karvunarja into the  Spercheus. In 480 BC, the Persians by…

Acyphas

(89 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀκύφας; Akýphas). Town of the Dorian  Metropolis, also called  Pindus, on the Pindus river above  Erineus, possibly about 5 km west of Kastelli, c. 3 km south of Oinochori near Ano Kastelli on the upper reaches of the Kananitis, where numerous traces of ancient settlements still exist (partly used as building material in a Frankish fortress), especially dating from the Hellenistic period (Str. 9,4,10. 5,10; Steph. Byz. s. v.; SEG 27,123,12. 39,476).  Doris Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography D. Rousset, Les Doriens de la Métropole, in: BCH 113, 1989, 199-239.

Cnopus

(105 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κνῶπος; Knôpos). River in Boeotia; according to Nic. Ther. 889 it flowed into Lake Copais; schol. Nic. Ther. 889 also mentions an otherwise unknown polis C. that lay on the river  Ismenus (=C.?); it is from an area named Cnopia near Thebes (Str. 9,2,10: ἐκ τῆς Κνωπίας Θηβαϊκῆς) that the sanctuary of  Amphiaraus is said to have been transplanted to Oropus. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 200 T. K. Hubbard, Remaking Myth and Rewriting History: Cult Tradition in Pindar's Ninth Nemean, in: HSPh 94, 1992, 102-107 Schachter, …

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Erineus

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἐρινεός, Ἐρινεόν; Erineós, Erineón). Apart from Boium, Cytenium and Acyphas/Pindus, one of the towns, reportedly founded by  Dorus, of the middle Greek Doris. Reference passages: Tyrateus fr. 2 West; Hdt. 8,43; Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; schol. Aristoph. Plut. 385; schol. Lycoph. Alex. 980). As the only historical event, a raid by …

Harma

(167 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἅρμα; Hárma). Boeotian settlement on the Thebae - Chalcis [1] road between Teumessus and Mycalessus, already listed in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,499; Str. 9,2,26); mentioned in connection with the disappearance of  Amphiaraus or the rescue of  Adrastus [1] (Str. 9,2,11; Paus. 1,34,2; 9,19,4). For some time, H. together with Eleon, Mycalessus and Pharae formed an association of villages subordinate to Tanagra; i…

Acraephia

(608 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀκραίφια, Ἀκραιφία, Ἀκραιφίαι, Ἀκραίφιον, Ἀκραίφνιον, Ἀκραίφνια; Akraíphia, Akraiphía, Akraiphíai, Akraíphion, Akraíphnion, Akraíphnia. On the name: [5. 125]). Boeotian town on the eastern edge of the former Lake Copais on the western foothills of Mount  Ptoon, north of a deep bay, which, from about the 6th cent. BC to the 1st cent. AD, was separated from the lake by a frequently renewed dam a…

Aspledon

(131 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀσπληδών, Σπληδών; Asplēdṓn, Splēdṓn). Boeotian town, 20 stades north of  Orchomenus on the other side of the Melas; because of their climate, A. and its surrounding area were renamed Εὐδείελος (‘the sunlit’, Str. 9,2,41); the settlement was abandoned because of water shortage (Paus. 9,38,9). A. has been localized near Pyrgus (formerly: Xeropyrgos) (Hom. Il. 2,511; Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀ. and s.v. Ὑηττός; Nonnus, Dion. 13,94). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 360-363 J. Knauss,…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Eleon

(130 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἐλεών , Ἑλεών; Eleṓn, Heleṓn). Boeotian town (Plin. HN 4,26), already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,500, between Thebes and Tanagra near the mod. Harma (formerly: Dritsa). The town, which was fortified anew during the Middle Ages, was settled from the Early Helladic to the Roman period. Still independent in the classical period (Paus. 1,29,6), later E. together with Harma, Mycalessus, and Pharae formed a synoecism dependent on Tanagra (…

Potniae

(129 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πότνιαι/ Pótniai, Ποτνιαί/ Potniaí). Boeotian town c. 2 km south of Thebes on the road to Plataeae (Xen. Hell. 5,4,51) at the modern Tachi, with sanctuaries of Demeter, Kore and Dionysus Aigobolos, and a spring whose waters were said to madden horses (Paus. 9,8,1; Str. 9,2,24; Verg. G. 3,266 ff.; Ael. NA 15,25). It was identified with the Hypothebae mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,505 (Str. 9,2,32). At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the population of the unfortified town, which belonge…

Hyle

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ὕλη; Hýlē). [German version] [1] Place in Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Place in Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,500; cf. Str. 9,2,26; Steph. Byz. s.v.). According to Hom. Il. 5,707ff. (with Paus. 9,38,7; Str. 9,2,27), H. is on the Copais, according to Str. 9,2,20, on the  Hylice (see also Stat. Theb. 7,267f.). Attempts by Wallace and Knauss [3. 82f.; 2. 243-278] to identify it with one of the prehistoric settlement locations between the former Copais and the modern Hylike equate H.…

Pteleum

(300 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πτελεόν; Pteleón). [German version] [1] Place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae Fortified place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae [2], not located with certainty (Plin. HN 5,117; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). As a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,390 f.; 486; 2,82) P. was at times formally independent, but in fact it was dependent on Erythrae. P. is mentioned by Thuc. (8,24,2; 8,31,2) in connexion with the naval war in the waters around Miletus [2] and Chios in the winter of 412/1 BC (Peloponnesian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Keil, P.…

Ocalea

(93 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὠκαλέη/ Ōkaléē, Ὠκαλέα/ Ōkaléa, Ὠκάλεια/ Ōkáleia). City in western Boeotia, mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,501 and Hom. H. ad Apollinem 242, located at the southern edge of the former Lake Copais; later ancient authors gave varying accounts of O.'s location; cf. Str. 9,2,26f.; Plin. HN 4,26; Dionysius Kalliphontos 99; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 314-318  S. Lauffer, Kopais, vol. 1, 1986, 63-65  E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 266f.  P.W. Wallace, Strabo's Des…

Oedipodia

(58 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] also Oedipodeia (Οἰδιποδ(ε)ία/ Oidipod(e)ía). Spring (modern-day Hagioi Theodori) located northwest of Thebes on the road to Chalcis [1] (Paus. 9,18,5f.; Plin. HN 4,25; Solin. 7,22); here Sulla celebrated his victory over Archelaus [4] with a festival held in 86 BC (Plut. Sulla 19,11,464f.). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography N.D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, vol. 5, 21981, 118-121.

Hypatus

(64 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὕπατος; Hýpatos). Located above Glisas, modern Sagmatas, southern ridge of Mt. Messapion in Boeotia, on which there was probably a shrine to Zeus Hypatos (Paus 9,13,3) on the site of the monastery (with many ancient re-used stones). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 223-225 H. G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland (1876 and 1877), 1989, 506f. N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 21981, 122-125.

Oenophyta

(86 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Οἰνόφυτα/ Oinóphyta). Hamlet, c. 10 km to the southeast of Tanagra and to the north of the Asopus [2] near modern Inofita (once Staniates). Here, the Athenians defeated the Boeotians (Boeotia) in the battle of 457 BC, thus gaining supremacy over central Greece (Thuc. 1,108,3 with schol. 4,95,3; Diod. Sic. 11,83,1; Pl. Menex. 242b; Aristot. Pol. 1302b 29; Plut. Mor. 345d; Aristeid. 1,221; 3,328; 13,28; schol. Aristoph. Lys. 801; SEG 19, 363). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 58-60  E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2257f.

Psaphis

(33 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ψαφίς; Psaphís). Place mentioned only in Str. 9,1,22, belonging to Oropus, near which was the main sanctuary of Amphiaraus. For its location cf. [1]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey, 38-40.

Eleutherai

(193 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Ἐλευθεραί; Eleutheraí). A settlement of Boeotian origins on the pass-route across Mt. Cithaeron from Eleusis [1] to Thebes, near the mod. Kaza; after the cult of Dionysus Eleuthereus was relocated from E. to the southern slopes of the Acropolis in Athens [1] in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC, it belonged to Attica, without, however, ever forming an independent   dḗmos ; Source references: Eur. Supp. 757ff.; Xen. Hell. 5,4,14; Str. 9,2,31; Plin. HN 4,26; Paus. 1,38,8f.; Arr. Anab…

Coralius

(83 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κωράλιος; Kōrálios, Κουράλιος; Kourálios). River north-east of  Coronea. The river's banks were home to the Boeotian central sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Alc. 3 D.; Alc. 4). Callim. H. 5,64 calls it Kurálios. Str. (9,2,29; 33; 9,5,14; 17) confuses the C. and the other river by the same name near the sanctuary of Athena Itonia in Achaea Phthiotis with the Kuarios, a tributary of the river Peneius in Thessaliotis. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979, 116.
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