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Ḥadīth qudsī

(3,643 words)

Author(s): Graham, William A.
Ḥadīth qudsī (plur. aḥādīth qudsiyya, lit., holy tradition; also ḥadīth ilāhī, ḥadīth rabbānī, plur. aḥādīth ilāhiyya/rabbāniyya, lit., divine tra…
Date: 2020-06-10

Basmala

(2,883 words)

Author(s): Graham, William A.
The basmala has historical precedents in pre-Islamic usage. Al-Zamakhsharī (d. 538/1144) long ago noted the ancient Arabs' use of the formula “in the name of [the deities] al-Lāt [or] al-ʿUzzā” (1:29). Toufic Fahd (42), citing the Taʾrīkh of al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923) and the Kitāb al-Aghānī of Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī (d. 356/967), describes bi-smika llāhumma (“in your name, O God”) as an epistolary formula used by “the ancient Arabs” to begin any written document. Theodor …
Date: 2020-06-10