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(8,885 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kıbrıs, Greek Kúpros (etymologically derived probably from the word for “copper”), in western languages Cyprus, is the largest island in the Eastern Mediterranean, with a surface area of 9,251 km2. The nearest distance to the mainland is from Cape Kormakiti in the north to Anamur on the southern coast of Turkey, 71 km. The distance to the Syrian coast between Cape Andreas and Raʾs ibn K̲h̲ān north of al-Lād̲h̲ikiyya [ q.v.] is 98 km. The distance to Crete (Arabic Iḳrīṭis̲h̲ [ q.v.] is about 553 km. The island consists of two mountain ranges, Kyrenia-Karpass ris…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Gürd̲j̲ü

(797 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḵh̲ādi̊m (I) (d. 1035/1626), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Of Georgian origin, he served among the white eunuchs of the imperial harem under Sultan Meḥemmed III [ q.v.] (1003-12/1595-1603). He was appointed Ḵh̲āṣṣ-Oda Bas̲h̲i̊ by Sultan Aḥmed I shortly after his accession (2 S̲h̲aʿbān 1012/4 January 1604). Around Rabīʿ II 1013/September 1604, Ḵh̲ādi̊m Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a was given the rank of Third Vizier in the Dīwān , but already on the 27 Rabīʿ II/22 September was appointed beglerbegi of Egypt. He was able to restore order in that province and punished the rebels among the Ottoman regular troops ( ḳ…


(6,428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de | Reed, H.A. | Rogers, J.M.
, Larende or Karaman in modern Turkish usage, earlier Turkish Ḳaramān or Dārende, a provincial town in Anatolia, is the seat of one of the thirteen districts of Ḳonya [ q.v.]. The district of Karaman is the largest (4,647 km 2) ilçe in Turkey. The town lies outside the earthquake zone at lat. 37° N, long. 33° 10′ E, at an elevation of 1,038 m., on the plateau at the northern end of the pass leading through the Taurus Mts. to the Göksü (ancient Kalykadnos, or Saleph) river valley. The main roa…

Ḳoyul Hiṣār

(116 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār), more properly Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār , the name for two Byzantine fortresses: 1. identical with Baphaeon, to the north-east of Izmīd, the site of the first battle won by ʿOt̲h̲mān I against the Byzantines in 1301; 2. a fortress on the Saḳārya river [ q.v.] to the north-east of Bursa near Dinboz, taken by Ork̲h̲ān during a campaign in 1324-5. (A.H. de Groot) Bibliography ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde, Taʾrīk̲h̲, tr. R. F. Kreutel, Graz, etc. 1959, 43, 63, map I H. İnalcik, The Ottoman empirethe classical age 1300-1600, London 1973, 6, 55 D. E. Pitcher, An historical geography of the Ottoma…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Čerkes

(385 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(d. 1034/1625), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Educated in the palace school or Enderūn [ q.v.], he reached the rank of silāḥdār and left the palace with the appointment of Beglerbegi of Damascus. In 1621 he is mentioned as the fifth Ḳubbe Wezīri̊ (Nāʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , Istanbul 1280, ii, 208). Upon the execution of the Grand Vizier Kemānkes̲h̲ ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] (14 Ḏj̲umādā II 1033/3 April 1624), Murād IV [ q.v.] forced him to accept the appointment of himself as successor. Čerkes Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a thus became commander-in-chief of the army sent to suppress the revolt of Abāzā Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [see abāzā…

Murād III

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, twelfth Ottoman Sultan (ruled 982-1003/1574-95). He was born on 5 D̲j̲umāda I 953/4 July 1546 in the princely summer camp at Bozdaǧ Yayla near Manisa [ q.v.] where his father, the later Sultan Selīm II [ q.v.], resided as sand̲j̲aḳ-begi . His mother was the Venetian-born k̲h̲āṣṣekī Nūr Bānū [ q.v.]. His ceremonial circumcision took place at Manisa in April 1557. At the time, prince Selīm was appointed sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Ḳaramān [ q.v.] in 1558 and Sultan Süleymān I [ q.v.] made his grandson sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Aḳs̲h̲ehir. In 1561 Murād stayed with his grandfather in Istanbul, and…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(722 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
or Rūmī (d. 883/1478), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Being of ḳul status, his origins, whether Greek or Albanian, are obscure. Sultan Meḥemmed II [ q.v.] admitted him into his intimate circle after the unsuccessful Albanian campaign of 870/1466 during which Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a became Second Vizier. In 1468/872 he joined the campaign against Ḳaramān [see ḳaramān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ], during which he manifested his rivalry with the Grand Vizier Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Instead of him, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was charged with the deportation of selected members of the populations of the cities of Ḳaramān, Ḳonya [ q.v…

Ṣari̊ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(801 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Baḳḳāl-zāde , Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī , S̲h̲ehrī , Defterdār (?-1129/1717), Ottoman statesman, born in Istanbul (hence: S̲h̲ehrī), a son of a Muslim Turkish grocer. He styled himself El-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Meḥmed ed-Defterī in the preface to his chronicle. He made his career in the financial department of the Porte [see māliyye ]. In 1081/1671 he was employed in the office of the rūznāmd̲j̲e-yi ewwel ḳalemi [ q.v.]. He won the patronage of the defterdār Ḳi̊li̊č ʿAlī Efendi, bas̲h̲defterdār (in function 1102/1691-2) and was promoted to mektūbd̲j̲u (= mektūbī ), head of the secretariat of the principal deft…

Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a

(459 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Topal (d. 1041/1632), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.]. Of Bosnian origin, he began his career in the bostand̲j̲i̊ corps and attained the high office of Bostand̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in the reign of Aḥmed I [ q.v.]. Although slightly invalid (a sufferer from gout, hence topal ), he continued his career: a vizier since 1031/1622, he was appointed commander-in-chief in the Black Sea. With his squadron he defeated a Cossack fleet of 600 s̲h̲ayḳas . Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a was Ḳapudān-pas̲h̲a 1032-5/1623-26. Commanding the fleet in Rad̲j̲ab-Ramaḍ…

Ḳoylu Ḥiṣār

(371 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
( Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār ), modern Koyulhisar, centre of an ilçe of the province ( il) of Sivas in the valley of the Kelkit River along the old route from Niksar to S̲h̲ābīn Ḳaraḥiṣār and Erzurum in the so-called “left wing” ( sol ḳol ) of Anatolia within the framework of the Ottoman road and postal system. The site has changed a few times because of earthquakes (most recently in 1939). Before ca. 1850 the township probably lay on the site of the actual Yukari Kale. The town and fortress were lost by the Byzantines after the battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). After direct Sald̲j̲ūḳid rule,…

Ḳod̲j̲a Eli

(577 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kocaeli: a region between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, covering a part of ancient Bithynia with its centre Izmīd [ q.v.] (ancient Nicomedia), and the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Ottoman empire. Nowadays it is the name of a province ( il) of Turkey (population 385,408 in 1970), with Izmit as its capital. In 1954 the eastern part of the province Kocaeli was separated to form the Sakarya (Saḳārya) province with its capital Adapazari. Since this administrative reform, Kocaeli has comprised the ilces (formerly ḳaḍāʾs ) of (Izmit-) Merkez, Gebze…


(463 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(transliterated also sālyāne ), a technical term in Ottoman administrative usage derived from the Persian sāl (year) meaning "yearly", "yearly allowance" or "stipend". The term is applied especially to the yearly income allotted to some categories of provincial rulers and governors (16th-19th centuries). These were the members of the Girāy [ q.v.] dynasty, some governors of maritime districts and other sand̲j̲aḳ-beg̲i s and beglerbegi s whose income did not derive from k̲h̲āṣṣ [ q.v.] domains ¶ but consisted of a yearly allowance fixed at the time of their appointment.…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḳayṣariyyeli

(2,821 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ottoman Grand Vizier and admiral, born probably ca. 1570, in the village of Zeytun (now Süleymanh) in the province of Maraş on the way to Ḳayseri, near Furnuz, at that time an Armenian village with a rich population (iron mines nearby, Andreasyan, 1964). It suffered heavily from destructions done by Ḏj̲elālī rebels. As a young boy, K̲h̲alīl was recruited by the Devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.], (Uzunçarşih, Kapikulu , i, 27, n. 4) and received the full education of the palace-school as an ič og̲h̲lān . His career may have been promoted by the fact that he had an elde…

Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, al-Faransawī (Sèves or Sève Pas̲h̲a, 1788-1860), one of the French officers serving in Muḥammad ʿAlī’s Pas̲h̲a’s [ q.v.] army. Joseph Anthelme Sève was the son of a Lyons draper. When fifteen years old, he enlisted as a gunner in the French army, and later served in the Hussars. He fought in Napoleon’s Prussian campaign (1806-7) and was promoted to the rank of adjutant, and during the “Hundred Days” (1814), he served on the staff of Marshal Grouchy. Dismissed by the royal government, he went to Egypt in 1815, and was eventually attached to the staff of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Sève became an…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Balṭad̲j̲i̊

(1,644 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ṭeberdār (1071-1124/1660-1 to 1712), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Aḥmed III [ q.v.]. Born in Osmancık (Merzifon), as the son of Turkish Muslim parents, he was able to enter the outside service of the Sultan’s palace thanks to patronage ( intisāb ). He began his career in a secretarial function. By favour and through the patronage of Ḥabes̲h̲ī ʿAlī Ag̲h̲a and other bīrūn ag̲h̲a s, he entered the service of the Wālide Sulṭān Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲e Tark̲h̲ān, attaining the rank of k̲h̲alīfe in 1099/1687. The prince Aḥmed (the later Aḥmed III) appointed Meḥmed…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḥād̲jd̲j̲ī Arnawud

(886 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Groot, A.H. de
, Grand Vizier under the Ottoman Sulṭān Aḥmad III. He was an Albanian from Elbaṣān born ca. 1655. At the time his elder brother Sinān Āg̲h̲ā was Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.], he entered the Bostand̲j̲i̊ corps. After the latter’s death ca. 1105/1649, he became attached to Ḳalayli̊ḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a and served under him in Bag̲h̲dād, where his protector was beglerbegi . On his return to Istanbul, K̲h̲alīl became K̲h̲āṣṣaki [ q.v.] and in 1123/1711, Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊. On 16 Muḥarram 1128/11 January 1716, having been appointed beglerbegi of Erzurum, he was sent by the Grand Vizi…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Ḳaramānī

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ , (d. 886/1481), Ottoman Grand Vizier and historian. A descendant of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī [ q.v.], he grew up in Ḳonya where he received his education as an ʿālim from Muṣannifak al-Ṣiddīḳī who introduced him into the patronage of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a served as a clerk in the dīwān of that Grand Vizier and later became müderris in the medrese founded by the same at Istanbul, being at the same time a general adviser to his patron. Thanks to the latter, he became nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] in 869/1464, which high office he kept for about 12 years. From 4 Ḏ…

Siyāwus̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a

(889 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, J. | Groot, A.H. de
, the name of two Ottoman Grand Viziers. 1. Kaniz̲h̲eli (i.e. from Kaniz̲h̲e, modern Nagykanizsa in Hungary), of Hungarian or Croatian descent, b. at an unknown date, d. 1010/1602. He was educated in the Istanbul palace and steadily followed a career through the posts of mīrāk̲h̲ur , siliḥdār , Janissary ag̲h̲a and beglerbegi of Rumelia. Having attained the rank of vizier in 988/1580, he was married to Fāṭima Sulṭān, a sister of sultan Murād III [ q.v.], by whom he had two sons and a daughter. Three times he attained the highest state office as Grand Vizier, which he oc…


(904 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sayyid Aḥmad (1290-1351/1873-1933), Third Grand Master of the Sanūsiyya [ q.v.] order of dervishes. His full name was al-Sayyid Muḥammad al-Maḥdī Aḥmad b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad al-S̲h̲arīf b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Sanūsī al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī al-Hasanī al-Idrīsī. He was born at D̲j̲ag̲h̲būb. a grandson of the founder of the order, and received a classical education in Islamic learning from his father, uncle, etc., according to the high standards of Sanūsī tradition. He succeeded to the leadership at Ḳūrū (Borku, in Chad),…

Murād IV

(1,900 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, seventeenth Ottoman sultan (1021-49/1612-40, reigned 1032-49/1623-40). Born in Istanbul in a palace on the Bosphorus on 28 D̲j̲umādā I 1021/27 July 1612, son of the reigning sultan Aḥmed I [ q.v.] and his principal consort, k̲h̲aṣṣekī , Kösem [ q.v.] Māhpeyker, a woman of Greek origin (Anastasia, 1585-1651). He grew up in the palace together with his brother İbrāhīm, confined in the ḳafes apartments, since he was five years old. The princes Süleymān, Ḳāsi̊m and İbrāhīm were his full brothers, and he had two full sisters ʿAʾis̲h̲e Sul…
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