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Ṣari̊ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(801 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Baḳḳāl-zāde , Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī , S̲h̲ehrī , Defterdār (?-1129/1717), Ottoman statesman, born in Istanbul (hence: S̲h̲ehrī), a son of a Muslim Turkish grocer. He styled himself El-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Meḥmed ed-Defterī

Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a

(459 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Topal (d. 1041/1632), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.]. Of Bosnian origin, he began his career in the bostand̲j̲i̊ corps and attained the high office of Bostand̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in the reign of Aḥmed I [ q.v.]. Although slightly invalid (a sufferer from gout, hence topal ), he continued his career: a vizier since 1031/1622, he was appointed commander-in-chief in the Black Sea. With his squadron he defeated a Cossack fleet of 600 s̲h̲ayḳas . Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a was Ḳapudān-pas̲h̲a 1032-5/1623-26. Commanding the fleet in Rad̲j̲ab-Ramaḍān 1033/May-July 1624 at the time of a revolt of the K̲h̲ān of the Crimea Meḥmed Girāy III (second reign 1032-6/1623-7), he was able to hold Kefe [ q.v.]. Next year, he again defeated a Cossack force of 350 s̲h̲ayḳas off Kara Harman (to the north of Köstend̲j̲e/Constanța [ q.v.]). In 1035/1626 he organised a revolt of Janissaries in the capital and gained the position of ḳāʾim-maḳām instead of Gürd̲j̲ü Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Provoked by the dismissal of the Grand Vizier K̲h̲osrew Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], in 1041/1631 …

Ḳoylu Ḥiṣār

(371 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
( Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār ), modern Koyulhisar, centre of an ilçe of the province ( il) of Sivas in the valley of the Kelkit River along the old route from Niksar to S̲h̲ābīn Ḳaraḥiṣār and Erzurum in the so-called “left wing” ( sol ḳol ) of Anatolia within the framework of the Ottoman road and postal system. The site has changed a few times because of earthquakes (most recently in 1939). Before ca. 1850 the township probably lay on the site of the actual Yukari Kale. The town and fortress were lost by the Byzantines after the battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). After direct Sald̲j̲ūḳid rule,…

Ḳod̲j̲a Eli

(577 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kocaeli: a region between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, covering a part of ancient Bithynia with its centre Izmīd [ q.v.] (ancient Nicomedia), and the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Ottoman empire. Nowadays it is the name of a province ( il) of Turkey (population 385,408 in 1970), with Izmit as its capital. In 1954 the eastern part of the province Kocaeli was separated to form the Sakarya (Saḳārya) province with its capital Adapazari. Since this administrative reform, Kocaeli has comprised the ilces (formerly ḳaḍāʾs ) of (Izmit-) Merkez, Gebze…


(463 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(transliterated also sālyāne ), a technical term in Ottoman administrative usage derived from the Persian sāl (year) meaning "yearly", "yearly allowance" or "stipend". The term is applied especially to the yearly income allotted to some categories of provincial rulers and governors (16th-19th centuries). These were the members of the Girāy [ q.v.] dynasty, some governors of maritime districts and other sand̲j̲aḳ-beg̲i s and beglerbegi s whose income did not derive from k̲h̲āṣṣ [ q.v.] domains ¶ but consisted of a yearly allowance fixed at the time of their appointment.…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḳayṣariyyeli

(2,821 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ottoman Grand Vizier and admiral, born probably ca. 1570, in the village of Zeytun (now Süleymanh) in the province of Maraş on the way to Ḳayseri, near Furnuz, at that time an Armenian village with a rich population (iron mines nearby, Andreasyan, 1964). It suffered heavily from destructions done by Ḏj̲elālī rebels. As a young boy, K̲h̲alīl was recruited by the Devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.], (Uzunçarşih, Kapikulu , i, 27, n. 4) and received the full education of the palace-school as an ič og̲h̲lān . His career may have been promoted by the fact that he had an elde…

Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, al-Faransawī (Sèves or Sève Pas̲h̲a, 1788-1860), one of the French officers serving in Muḥammad ʿAlī’s Pas̲h̲a’s [ q.v.] army. Joseph Anthelme Sève was the son of a Lyons draper. When fifteen years old, he enlisted as a gunner in the French army, and later served in the Hussars. He fought in Napoleon’s Prussian campaign (1806-7) and was promoted to the rank of adjutant, and during the “Hundred Days” (1814), he served on the staff of Marshal Grouchy. Dismissed by the royal government, he went to Egypt in 1815, and was eventually attached to the staff of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Sève became an…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Balṭad̲j̲i̊

(1,644 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ṭeberdār (1071-1124/1660-1 to 1712), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Aḥmed III [ q.v.]. Born in Osmancık (Merzifon), as the son of Turkish Muslim parents, he was able to enter the outside service of the Sultan’s palace thanks to patronage ( intisāb ). He began his career in a secretarial function. By favour and through the patronage of Ḥabes̲h̲ī ʿAlī Ag̲h̲a and other bīrūn ag̲h̲a s, he entered the service of the Wālide Sulṭān Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲e Tark̲h̲ān, attaining the rank of k̲h̲alīfe in 1099/1687. The prince Aḥmed (the later Aḥmed III) appointed Meḥmed…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḥād̲jd̲j̲ī Arnawud

(886 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Groot, A.H. de
, Grand Vizier under the Ottoman Sulṭān Aḥmad III. He was an Albanian from Elbaṣān born ca. 1655. At the time his elder brother Sinān Āg̲h̲ā was Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.], he entered the Bostand̲j̲i̊ corps. After the latter’s death ca. 1105/1649, he became attached to Ḳalayli̊ḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a and served under him in Bag̲h̲dād, where his protector was beglerbegi . On his return to Istanbul, K̲h̲alīl became K̲h̲āṣṣaki [ q.v.] and in 1123/1711, Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊. On 16 Muḥarram 1128/11 January 1716, having been appointed beglerbegi of Erzurum, he was sent by the Grand Vizi…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Ḳaramānī

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ , (d. 886/1481), Ottoman Grand Vizier and historian. A descendant of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī [ q.v.], he grew up in Ḳonya where he received his education as an ʿālim from Muṣannifak al-Ṣiddīḳī who introduced him into the patronage of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a served as a clerk in the dīwān of that Grand Vizier and later became müderris in the medrese founded by the same at Istanbul, being at the same time a general adviser to his patron. Thanks to the latter, he became nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] in 869/1464, which high office he kept for about 12 years. From 4 Ḏ…

Siyāwus̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a

(889 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, J. | Groot, A.H. de
, the name of two Ottoman Grand Viziers. 1. Kaniz̲h̲eli (i.e. from Kaniz̲h̲e, modern Nagykanizsa in Hungary), of Hungarian or Croatian descent, b. at an unknown date, d. 1010/1602. He was educated in the Istanbul palace and steadily followed a career through the posts of mīrāk̲h̲ur , siliḥdār , Janissary ag̲h̲a and beglerbegi of Rumelia. Having attained the rank of vizier in 988/1580, he was married to Fāṭima Sulṭān, a sister of sultan Murād III [ q.v.], by whom he had two sons and a daughter. Three times he attained the highest state office as Grand Vizier, which he oc…

Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ayrī Efendi

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ürgüplü (1283-1339/1867-1921), S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ ül-Islām of the Ottoman Empire. A member of an old established local ʿulamāʾ family, he was born at Ürgüp as a son of ʿAbd Allāh ʿAwnī Efendi. Members of the family were the administrator of the waḳf of the town’s principal mosque complex, the ulu d̲j̲āmiʿ founded by Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu Ibrāhīm Bey [see ḳaramānog̲h̲ullari̊ ], K̲h̲ayrī received his early education locally inter alia in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical literature and calligraphy. His elder brother, an Inspector of Justice in the wilāyet of Sivas [ q.v.], supervised his cont…

Nūr Bānū

(901 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Wālide Suḷtān ( ca. 932-91/ca. 1525-83), K̲h̲aṣṣekī (principal consort) of the Ottoman sultan Selīm II [ q.v.] and mother of the sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. She was born on Paros [see para ] as Cecilia, illegitimate daughter of Nicolo Venier (d. 1520), the penultimate sovereign ruler of the island and of Violante Baffo. The identity of this “Venetian Sultana” is often confused with that of her successor, the Wālide Sulṭān Ṣāfiye [ q.v.]. Some Turkish historians persist in ascribing a Jewish origin to her. At the time of the conquest of the island in 1537, she was selec…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Tabani̊yassi̊

(300 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(997?-1049/1589?-1639), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Of Albanian origin, he was taken from his home at Tas̲h̲lid̲j̲a as a devs̲h̲irme boy and entered the palace service [see enderūn ]. The protection of the Dār al-Saʿāda Ag̲h̲asi̊ Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muṣṭafā Ag̲h̲a provided him with a quick career from Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr to vizier and Beglerbegi of ¶ Egypt before becoming Grand Vizier on 28 S̲h̲awwāl 1041/18 May 1632. He assisted Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.] in suppressing opposition forces in the capital, thus making it possible for the sultan to rule in person. Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a favoured a …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Gürd̲j̲ü

(487 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(II) (d. 1076/1666), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Having been a slave (but not an eunuch) of Ḳod̲j̲a Sinān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], he entered the palace service, beginning as an apprentice in the kitchen ( maṭbak̲h̲ emīnliǧi ) department. By Ḏj̲umādā II 1023/July 1614, he reached the rank of a d̲j̲ebed̲j̲i bas̲h̲i̊ . While on campaign with Öküz Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in the East, he was appointed čawus̲h̲ bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/November 1617. In Rabīʿ I 1029/February 1620 he was made ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ , bas̲h̲i̊ , in which function he participated in Sultan ʿOt̲…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Elmās

(625 words)

Author(s): Groot, A. H. de
(1071-1109/1662-97), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was born in Hoşalay (formerly Mesed, to the east of Kerempe Burnu) (Kastamonu), the son of a shipmaster. As a young man (reputedly beautiful, hence his surname Elmas “Diamond”), he was taken ¶ into the service of the state by a chief inspector of the Sultan’s treasury ( Bas̲h̲ Bāḳī Ḳulu ), Divrigili Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, who was appointed governor of Tripoli in Syria in 1089/1677-8. From the service of the treasury, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Elmās was soon promoted to the palace service, to the Ḵh̲āṣṣ Oda [ q.v.] from where he made quick career as Riḳābdār , Si̊lāḥdā…

Mesiḥ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(326 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḵh̲ādim ( ca. 901-98/ ca. 1495-1589), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. Ḵh̲ādim Mesīḥ made his career as one of the white ag̲h̲as in the Sultan’s private household ( Enderun [ q.v.]) at the time when their influence was still predominant in the palace. At the accession of Murād III (982/1574), he held the office of chief butler ( Ki̊lārd̲j̲i̊bas̲h̲i̊ ) He left the palace service to become Beglerbegi of Egypt. He governed that province for five years. His successful administration brought him the appointment as Third Vizier …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Öküz

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād , Ḳara , 964?-1029/1557?-1620) Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Istanbul the son of a Muslim blacksmith, he entered the palace service in spite of the fact of his being of Muslim Turkish origin. After about 40 years service as a silāḥdār , he left the Palace with the rank of a Vizier and became Beglerbegi of Egypt (Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1015/April 1607). Arriving there the same year in May (Muḥarram 1016), he became busy with administrative reform. He abolished the illegally-imposed levies of ṭulba , kulfa and kus̲h̲ūfiyya , which formed an excessively heavy…


(904 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sayyid Aḥmad (1290-1351/1873-1933), Third Grand Master of the Sanūsiyya [ q.v.] order of dervishes. His full name was al-Sayyid Muḥammad al-Maḥdī Aḥmad b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad al-S̲h̲arīf b. al-Sayyid Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Sanūsī al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī al-Hasanī al-Idrīsī. He was born at D̲j̲ag̲h̲būb. a grandson of the founder of the order, and received a classical education in Islamic learning from his father, uncle, etc., according to the high standards of Sanūsī tradition. He succeeded to the leadership at Ḳūrū (Borku, in Chad),…

Murād IV

(1,900 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, seventeenth Ottoman sultan (1021-49/1612-40, reigned 1032-49/1623-40). Born in Istanbul in a palace on the Bosphorus on 28 D̲j̲umādā I 1021/27 July 1612, son of the reigning sultan Aḥmed I [ q.v.] and his principal consort, k̲h̲aṣṣekī , Kösem [ q.v.] Māhpeyker, a woman of Greek origin (Anastasia, 1585-1651). He grew up in the palace together with his brother İbrāhīm, confined in the ḳafes apartments, since he was five years old. The princes Süleymān, Ḳāsi̊m and İbrāhīm were his full brothers, and he had two full sisters ʿAʾis̲h̲e Sul…
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